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Title: SDSS IV MaNGA—Rotation Velocity Lags in the Extraplanar Ionized Gas from MaNGA Observations of Edge-on Galaxies

Abstract

We present a study of the kinematics of the extraplanar ionized gas around several dozen galaxies observed by the Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We considered a sample of 67 edge-on galaxies out of more than 1400 extragalactic targets observed by MaNGA, in which we found 25 galaxies (or 37%) with regular lagging of the rotation curve at large distances from the galactic midplane. We model the observed H α emission velocity fields in the galaxies, taking projection effects and a simple model for the dust extinction into account. We show that the vertical lag of the rotation curve is necessary in the modeling, and estimate the lag amplitude in the galaxies. We find no correlation between the lag and the star formation rate in the galaxies. At the same time, we report a correlation between the lag and the galactic stellar mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, and axial ratio of the light distribution. These correlations suggest a possible higher ratio of infalling-to-local gas in early-type disk galaxies or a connection between lags and the possible presence of hot gaseous halos, which may be more prevalent in more massive galaxies. These results again demonstratemore » that observations of extraplanar gas can serve as a potential probe for accretion of gas.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]
  1. Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)
  2. Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  4. Departamento de Física, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000-97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)
  5. Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France)
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
  7. Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 1, Garching, D-85748 (Germany)
  8. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
  9. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663691
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 839; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AMPLITUDES; AXIAL RATIO; CORRELATIONS; DISPERSIONS; DISTRIBUTION; DUSTS; EMISSION; GALAXIES; GALAXY CLUSTERS; ISOCHRONOUS CYCLOTRONS; MASS; ROTATION; SIMULATION; STARS

Citation Formats

Bizyaev, D., Pan, K., Brinkmann, J., Walterbos, R. A. M., Yoachim, P., Riffel, R. A., Fernández-Trincado, J. G., Diamond-Stanic, A. M., Jones, A., Thomas, D., and Cleary, J. SDSS IV MaNGA—Rotation Velocity Lags in the Extraplanar Ionized Gas from MaNGA Observations of Edge-on Galaxies. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA6979.
Bizyaev, D., Pan, K., Brinkmann, J., Walterbos, R. A. M., Yoachim, P., Riffel, R. A., Fernández-Trincado, J. G., Diamond-Stanic, A. M., Jones, A., Thomas, D., & Cleary, J. SDSS IV MaNGA—Rotation Velocity Lags in the Extraplanar Ionized Gas from MaNGA Observations of Edge-on Galaxies. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA6979.
Bizyaev, D., Pan, K., Brinkmann, J., Walterbos, R. A. M., Yoachim, P., Riffel, R. A., Fernández-Trincado, J. G., Diamond-Stanic, A. M., Jones, A., Thomas, D., and Cleary, J. Thu . "SDSS IV MaNGA—Rotation Velocity Lags in the Extraplanar Ionized Gas from MaNGA Observations of Edge-on Galaxies". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA6979.
@article{osti_22663691,
title = {SDSS IV MaNGA—Rotation Velocity Lags in the Extraplanar Ionized Gas from MaNGA Observations of Edge-on Galaxies},
author = {Bizyaev, D. and Pan, K. and Brinkmann, J. and Walterbos, R. A. M. and Yoachim, P. and Riffel, R. A. and Fernández-Trincado, J. G. and Diamond-Stanic, A. M. and Jones, A. and Thomas, D. and Cleary, J.},
abstractNote = {We present a study of the kinematics of the extraplanar ionized gas around several dozen galaxies observed by the Mapping of Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We considered a sample of 67 edge-on galaxies out of more than 1400 extragalactic targets observed by MaNGA, in which we found 25 galaxies (or 37%) with regular lagging of the rotation curve at large distances from the galactic midplane. We model the observed H α emission velocity fields in the galaxies, taking projection effects and a simple model for the dust extinction into account. We show that the vertical lag of the rotation curve is necessary in the modeling, and estimate the lag amplitude in the galaxies. We find no correlation between the lag and the star formation rate in the galaxies. At the same time, we report a correlation between the lag and the galactic stellar mass, central stellar velocity dispersion, and axial ratio of the light distribution. These correlations suggest a possible higher ratio of infalling-to-local gas in early-type disk galaxies or a connection between lags and the possible presence of hot gaseous halos, which may be more prevalent in more massive galaxies. These results again demonstrate that observations of extraplanar gas can serve as a potential probe for accretion of gas.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA6979},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 839,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Apr 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Apr 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary inmore » diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å{sup –1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup –2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.« less
  • We present the integrated stellar mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R {sub eff}) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondarymore » relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.« less
  • The nature of warm, ionized gas outside of galaxies may illuminate several key galaxy evolutionary processes. A serendipitous observation by the MaNGA survey has revealed a large, asymmetric H α complex with no optical counterpart that extends ≈8″ (≈6.3 kpc) beyond the effective radius of a dusty, starbursting galaxy. This H α extension is approximately three times the effective radius of the host galaxy and displays a tail-like morphology. We analyze its gas-phase metallicities, gaseous kinematics, and emission-line ratios and discuss whether this H α extension could be diffuse ionized gas, a gas accretion event, or something else. We findmore » that this warm, ionized gas structure is most consistent with gas accretion through recycled wind material, which could be an important process that regulates the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.« less
  • Spectroscopic observations of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 confirm the existence of ionized gas well above its central plane. H-alpha can be traced to z above 30 arcsec corresponding to z above 1.4 kpc. Alternative situations (an incorrect aspect ratio, a warp in the plane, or scattering from extraplanar dust) are considered and rejected. Eleven spectrograms positioned parallel and perpendicular to the plane show that this gas is in cylindrical rotation to at least z = 0.7 kpc, to within the accuracy of measurement, 25 km/s. Corotation is most readily understood if this high-z gas originates within the disk.more » The structure and physical state of this extraplanar ionized gas are discussed. 43 refs.« less
  • Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA), one of three core programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV, is an integral-field spectroscopic survey of roughly 10,000 nearby galaxies. It employs dithered observations using 17 hexagonal bundles of 2″ fibers to obtain resolved spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range of 3600–10300 Å. To map the internal variations within each galaxy, we need to perform accurate spectral surface photometry, which is to calibrate the specific intensity at every spatial location sampled by each individual aperture element of the integral field unit. The calibration must correct only for the flux loss duemore » to atmospheric throughput and the instrument response, but not for losses due to the finite geometry of the fiber aperture. This requires the use of standard star measurements to strictly separate these two flux loss factors (throughput versus geometry), a difficult challenge with standard single-fiber spectroscopy techniques due to various practical limitations. Therefore, we developed a technique for spectral surface photometry using multiple small fiber-bundles targeting standard stars simultaneously with galaxy observations. We discuss the principles of our approach and how they compare to previous efforts, and we demonstrate the precision and accuracy achieved. MaNGA's relative calibration between the wavelengths of Hα and Hβ has an rms of 1.7%, while that between [N ii] λ6583 and [O ii] λ3727 has an rms of 4.7%. Using extinction-corrected star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities as an illustration, this level of precision guarantees that flux calibration errors will be sub-dominant when estimating these quantities. The absolute calibration is better than 5% for more than 89% of MaNGA's wavelength range.« less