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Title: Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714

Abstract

We present the results of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright blazar S5 0716+714 using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, as part of the Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-ray Bright active galactic nuclei (iMOGABA) KVN key science program. Observations were conducted in 29 sessions from 2013 January 16 to 2016 March 1, with the source being detected and imaged at all available frequencies. In all epochs, the source was compact on the milliarcsecond scale, yielding a compact VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on these scales. Based on the multiwavelength data between 15 GHz (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) and 230 GHz (Submillimeter Array), we found that the source shows multiple prominent enhancements of the flux density at the centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths, with mm enhancements leading cm enhancements by −16 ± 8 days. The turnover frequency was found to vary between 21 and 69 GHz during our observations. By assuming a synchrotron self-absorption model for the relativistic jet emission in S5 0716+714, we found the magnetic field strength in the mas emission region to be ≤5 mG during the observing period, yielding a weighted mean of 1.0more » ± 0.6 mG for higher turnover frequencies (e.g., >45 GHz).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663550
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 841; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BL LACERTAE OBJECTS; COMPACTS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; EMISSION; FLUX DENSITY; GALAXIES; GALAXY NUCLEI; GAMMA RADIATION; GHZ RANGE; INTERFEROMETRY; LINEAR ABSORPTION MODELS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SELF-ABSORPTION; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Lee, Jee Won, Lee, Sang-Sung, Hodgson, Jeffrey A., Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Kang, Sincheol, Kang, Jiman, Kim, Dae-Won, and Kim, Sungsoo S., E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr. Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA72F7.
Lee, Jee Won, Lee, Sang-Sung, Hodgson, Jeffrey A., Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Kang, Sincheol, Kang, Jiman, Kim, Dae-Won, & Kim, Sungsoo S., E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr. Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA72F7.
Lee, Jee Won, Lee, Sang-Sung, Hodgson, Jeffrey A., Algaba, Juan-Carlos, Kang, Sincheol, Kang, Jiman, Kim, Dae-Won, and Kim, Sungsoo S., E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr. Thu . "Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA72F7.
@article{osti_22663550,
title = {Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714},
author = {Lee, Jee Won and Lee, Sang-Sung and Hodgson, Jeffrey A. and Algaba, Juan-Carlos and Kang, Sincheol and Kang, Jiman and Kim, Dae-Won and Kim, Sungsoo S., E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr},
abstractNote = {We present the results of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright blazar S5 0716+714 using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, as part of the Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-ray Bright active galactic nuclei (iMOGABA) KVN key science program. Observations were conducted in 29 sessions from 2013 January 16 to 2016 March 1, with the source being detected and imaged at all available frequencies. In all epochs, the source was compact on the milliarcsecond scale, yielding a compact VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on these scales. Based on the multiwavelength data between 15 GHz (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) and 230 GHz (Submillimeter Array), we found that the source shows multiple prominent enhancements of the flux density at the centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths, with mm enhancements leading cm enhancements by −16 ± 8 days. The turnover frequency was found to vary between 21 and 69 GHz during our observations. By assuming a synchrotron self-absorption model for the relativistic jet emission in S5 0716+714, we found the magnetic field strength in the mas emission region to be ≤5 mG during the observing period, yielding a weighted mean of 1.0 ± 0.6 mG for higher turnover frequencies (e.g., >45 GHz).},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA72F7},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 841,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Here, using millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 from August 2008 to September 2013, we investigate variations in the core flux density and orientation of the sub-parsec scale jet, i.e. position angle. The γ-ray data obtained by the Fermi Large Area Telescope are used to investigate the high-energy flux variations over the same time period. For the first time in any blazar, we report a significant correlation between the γ-ray flux variations and the position angle variations in the VLBI jet. The cross-correlation analysis also indicates a positive correlation such that themore » mm-VLBI core flux density variations are delayed with respect to the γ-ray flux by 82±32 days. This suggests that the high-energy emission is coming from a region located ≥(3.8±1.9) parsecs upstream of the mm-VLBI core (closer to the central black hole). Lastly, these results imply that the observed inner jet morphology has a strong connection with the observed γ-ray flares.« less
  • In this paper, we present the results of a series of radio, optical, X-ray, and γ-ray observations of the BL Lac object S50716+714 carried out between April 2007 and January 2011. The multifrequency observations were obtained using several ground- and space-based facilities. The intense optical monitoring of the source reveals faster repetitive variations superimposed on a long-term variability trend on a time scale of ~350 days. Episodes of fast variability recur on time scales of ~60-70 days. The intense and simultaneous activity at optical and γ-ray frequencies favors the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism for the production of the high-energy emission. Twomore » major low-peaking radio flares were observed during this high optical/γ-ray activity period. The radio flares are characterized by a rising and a decaying stage and agrees with the formation of a shock and its evolution. We found that the evolution of the radio flares requires a geometrical variation in addition to intrinsic variations of the source. Different estimates yield robust and self-consistent lower limits of δ ≥ 20 and equipartition magnetic field B eq ≥ 0.36 G. Causality arguments constrain the size of emission region θ ≤ 0.004 mas. We found a significant correlation between flux variations at radio frequencies with those at optical and γ-rays. Theoptical/GeV flux variations lead the radio variability by ~65 days. The longer time delays between low-peaking radio outbursts and optical flares imply that optical flares are the precursors of radio ones. An orphan X-ray flare challenges the simple, one-zone emission models, rendering them too simple. Finally, here we also describe the spectral energy distribution modeling of the source from simultaneous data taken through different activity periods.« less
  • We present results of single-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, which are part of a KVN key science program, Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs. We selected a total of 34 radio-loud AGNs of which 30 sources are gamma-ray bright AGNs with flux densities of >6 × 10{sup −10} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Single-epoch multifrequency VLBI observations of the target sources were conducted during a 24 hr session on 2013 November 19 and 20. All observed sources weremore » detected and imaged at all frequency bands, with or without a frequency phase transfer technique, which enabled the imaging of 12 faint sources at 129 GHz, except for one source. Many of the target sources are resolved on milliarcsecond scales, yielding a core-jet structure, with the VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on a milliarcsecond scale. CLEAN flux densities of the target sources are 0.43–28 Jy, 0.32–21 Jy, 0.18–11 Jy, and 0.35–8.0 Jy in the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, respectively. Spectra of the target sources become steeper at higher frequency, with spectral index means of −0.40, −0.62, and −1.00 in the 22–43 GHz, 43–86 GHz and 86–129 GHz bands, respectively, implying that the target sources become optically thin at higher frequencies (e.g., 86–129 GHz).« less
  • We present the results of our optical monitoring of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 over seven nights in 2006 December. The monitoring was carried out simultaneously at three optical wavelengths with a novel photometric system. The object did not show large-amplitude internight variations during this period. Intranight variations were observed on four nights and probably on one more. Strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was detected on both intranight and internight timescales. The intranight variation amplitude decreases in the wavelength sequence of B', R', and V'. Cross-correlation analyses revealed that the variability at the B' and V' bands leads that at themore » R' band by about 30 minutes on one night.« less
  • We have monitored the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 in five intermediate optical wavebands from 2004 September to 2011 April. Here, we present data that include 8661 measurements representing one of the largest databases obtained for an object in the optical domain. A simple analysis of the data indicates that the object was active most of the time, and intraday variability was frequently observed. In total, the object varied by 2.614 mag in the i band. Strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was observed on long, intermediate, and short timescales.