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Title: No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines

Abstract

The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca ii H and K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra ( R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca ii H and K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lowermore » spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663540
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 153; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; BUBBLES; CALCIUM; CLOUDS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; EMISSION; GALAXIES; HYDROGEN; INDEXES; INTERSTELLAR SPACE; POTASSIUM; RESOLUTION; STELLAR CHROMOSPHERES; SUN

Citation Formats

Curtis, Jason Lee, E-mail: jasoncurtis.astro@gmail.com. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA72E9.
Curtis, Jason Lee, E-mail: jasoncurtis.astro@gmail.com. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA72E9.
Curtis, Jason Lee, E-mail: jasoncurtis.astro@gmail.com. Thu . "No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA72E9.
@article{osti_22663540,
title = {No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines},
author = {Curtis, Jason Lee, E-mail: jasoncurtis.astro@gmail.com},
abstractNote = {The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca ii H and K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra ( R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca ii H and K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lower spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/AA72E9},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = 6,
volume = 153,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}