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Title: Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS

Abstract

In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up an image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He ii 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission linemore » of up to ±280 km s{sup −1}. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)
  2. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
  3. Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663506
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 842; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; EMISSION; ENERGY ABSORPTION; ENERGY LOSSES; EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; FILTERS; HARD X RADIATION; PLASMA; RED SHIFT; RESOLUTION; SPECTROMETERS; SUN; VELOCITY; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Harra, Louise K., Matthews, Sarah, Culhane, J. Leonard, Woods, Magnus M., Hara, Hirohisa, Doschek, George A., and Warren, Harry, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7411.
Harra, Louise K., Matthews, Sarah, Culhane, J. Leonard, Woods, Magnus M., Hara, Hirohisa, Doschek, George A., & Warren, Harry, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7411.
Harra, Louise K., Matthews, Sarah, Culhane, J. Leonard, Woods, Magnus M., Hara, Hirohisa, Doschek, George A., and Warren, Harry, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk. Sat . "Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7411.
@article{osti_22663506,
title = {Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS},
author = {Harra, Louise K. and Matthews, Sarah and Culhane, J. Leonard and Woods, Magnus M. and Hara, Hirohisa and Doschek, George A. and Warren, Harry, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk},
abstractNote = {In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up an image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He ii 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission line of up to ±280 km s{sup −1}. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA7411},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 842,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jun 10 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Jun 10 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • The contribution of plumes to the solar wind has been subject to hot debate in the past decades. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode provides a unique means to deduce outflow velocities at coronal heights via direct Doppler shift measurements of coronal emission lines. Such direct Doppler shift measurements were not possible with previous spectrometers. We measure the outflow velocity at coronal heights in several on-disk long-duration plumes, which are located in coronal holes (CHs) and show significant blueshifts throughout the entire observational period. In one case, a plume is measured four hours apart. The deduced outflow velocitiesmore » are consistent, suggesting that the flows are quasi-steady. Furthermore, we provide an outflow velocity profile along the plumes, finding that the velocity corrected for the line-of-sight effect can reach 10 km s{sup –1} at 1.02 R {sub ☉}, 15 km s{sup –1} at 1.03 R {sub ☉}, and 25 km s{sup –1} at 1.05 R {sub ☉}. This clear signature of steady acceleration, combined with the fact that there is no significant blueshift at the base of plumes, provides an important constraint on plume models. At the height of 1.03 R {sub ☉}, EIS also deduced a density of 1.3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, resulting in a proton flux of about 4.2 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} scaled to 1 AU, which is an order of magnitude higher than the proton input to a typical solar wind if a radial expansion is assumed. This suggests that CH plumes may be an important source of the solar wind.« less
  • In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve themore » accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.« less
  • We use observations of a slow magnetohydrodynamic wave in the corona to determine for the first time the value of the effective adiabatic index, using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We detect oscillations in the electron density, using the CHIANTI atomic database to perform spectroscopy. From the time-dependent wave signals from multiple spectral lines the relationship between relative density and temperature perturbations is determined, which allows in turn to measure the effective adiabatic index to be {gamma}{sub eff} = 1.10 {+-} 0.02. This confirms that the thermal conduction along the magnetic field is very efficient inmore » the solar corona. The thermal conduction coefficient is measured from the phase lag between the temperature and density, and is shown to be compatible with Spitzer conductivity.« less
  • The signatures of energy release and energy transport for a kink-unstable coronal flux rope are investigated via forward modeling. Synthetic intensity and Doppler maps are generated from a 3D numerical simulation. The CHIANTI database is used to compute intensities for three Hinode /EIS emission lines that cover the thermal range of the loop. The intensities and Doppler velocities at simulation-resolution are spatially degraded to the Hinode /EIS pixel size (1″), convolved using a Gaussian point-spread function (3″), and exposed for a characteristic time of 50 s. The synthetic images generated for rasters (moving slit) and sit-and-stare (stationary slit) are analyzedmore » to find the signatures of the twisted flux and the associated instability. We find that there are several qualities of a kink-unstable coronal flux rope that can be detected observationally using Hinode /EIS, namely the growth of the loop radius, the increase in intensity toward the radial edge of the loop, and the Doppler velocity following an internal twisted magnetic field line. However, EIS cannot resolve the small, transient features present in the simulation, such as sites of small-scale reconnection (e.g., nanoflares).« less
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