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Title: Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

Abstract

Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan)
  2. Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663454
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 154; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ANGULAR MOMENTUM; COLLISIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DAMPING; INCLINATION; PLANETS; PROTOPLANETS; SATELLITES; SCATTERING; STABILITY

Citation Formats

Matsumoto, Yuji, and Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA74C7.
Matsumoto, Yuji, & Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA74C7.
Matsumoto, Yuji, and Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp. Sat . "Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/AA74C7.
@article{osti_22663454,
title = {Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets},
author = {Matsumoto, Yuji and Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp},
abstractNote = {Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/AA74C7},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 154,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}