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Title: The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

Abstract

Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part ofmore » the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ;  [5]; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];
  1. Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
  2. Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
  3. European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)
  4. Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  5. Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
  6. Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  7. Department of Astronomy/McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  8. Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  9. JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
  10. Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)
  11. Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229 F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France)
  12. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  13. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663450
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 843; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; APPROXIMATIONS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DWARF STARS; EMISSION; ENERGY SPECTRA; LYMAN LINES; MASS; PARTITION; PHOTOCHEMISTRY; PLANETS; PROTONS; SOFT X RADIATION; STELLAR FLARES; SUN; SURFACES; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Citation Formats

Youngblood, Allison, France, Kevin, Loyd, R. O. Parke, Mason, James P., Brown, Alexander, Schneider, P. Christian, Tilley, Matt A., Berta-Thompson, Zachory K., Kowalski, Adam, Buccino, Andrea, Mauas, Pablo J. D., Froning, Cynthia S., Hawley, Suzanne L., Linsky, Jeffrey, Redfield, Seth, Miguel, Yamila, Newton, Elisabeth R., Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu, and and others. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA76DD.
Youngblood, Allison, France, Kevin, Loyd, R. O. Parke, Mason, James P., Brown, Alexander, Schneider, P. Christian, Tilley, Matt A., Berta-Thompson, Zachory K., Kowalski, Adam, Buccino, Andrea, Mauas, Pablo J. D., Froning, Cynthia S., Hawley, Suzanne L., Linsky, Jeffrey, Redfield, Seth, Miguel, Yamila, Newton, Elisabeth R., Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu, & and others. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA76DD.
Youngblood, Allison, France, Kevin, Loyd, R. O. Parke, Mason, James P., Brown, Alexander, Schneider, P. Christian, Tilley, Matt A., Berta-Thompson, Zachory K., Kowalski, Adam, Buccino, Andrea, Mauas, Pablo J. D., Froning, Cynthia S., Hawley, Suzanne L., Linsky, Jeffrey, Redfield, Seth, Miguel, Yamila, Newton, Elisabeth R., Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu, and and others. Sat . "The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA76DD.
@article{osti_22663450,
title = {The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs},
author = {Youngblood, Allison and France, Kevin and Loyd, R. O. Parke and Mason, James P. and Brown, Alexander and Schneider, P. Christian and Tilley, Matt A. and Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. and Kowalski, Adam and Buccino, Andrea and Mauas, Pablo J. D. and Froning, Cynthia S. and Hawley, Suzanne L. and Linsky, Jeffrey and Redfield, Seth and Miguel, Yamila and Newton, Elisabeth R. and Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA76DD},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 843,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}