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Title: Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

Abstract

The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jetsmore » and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663298
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 845; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION; EXTRACTION; MASS; PLANETS; RADIATIVE COOLING; SATELLITE ATMOSPHERES; SATELLITES; SIMULATION; SPECIFIC HEAT; STABILITY; SURFACES; TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS; THERMODYNAMICS; TROPOPAUSE; TURBULENCE; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Chemke, Rei, and Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7742.
Chemke, Rei, & Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7742.
Chemke, Rei, and Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il. Thu . "Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7742.
@article{osti_22663298,
title = {Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres},
author = {Chemke, Rei and Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il},
abstractNote = {The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA7742},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 845,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}