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Title: The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection

Abstract

Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the most powerful explosions in the Sun. They are major sources of potentially destructive space weather conditions. However, the possible causes of their initiation remain controversial. Using high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, we present unusual observations of a small-scale emerging flux rope near a large sunspot, whose eruption produced an M-class flare and a coronal mass ejection. The presence of the small-scale flux rope was indicated by static nonlinear force-free field extrapolation as well as data-driven magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the dynamic evolution of the coronal three-dimensional magnetic field. During the emergence of the flux rope, rotation of satellite sunspots at the footpoints of the flux rope was observed. Meanwhile, the Lorentz force, magnetic energy, vertical current, and transverse fields were increasing during this phase. The free energy from the magnetic flux emergence and twisting magnetic fields is sufficient to power the M-class flare. These observations present, for the first time, the complete process, from the emergence of the small-scale flux rope, to the production of solar eruptions.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216, Yunnan (China)
  2. Institute of Space Science and Applied Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 5180055 (China)
  3. Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
  4. Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)
  5. Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663292
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 845; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; EVOLUTION; EXPLOSIONS; EXTRAPOLATION; FREE ENERGY; LORENTZ FORCE; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC FLUX; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; MASS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; PHOTOSPHERE; RESOLUTION; ROTATION; SATELLITES; SIMULATION; SOLAR FLARES; SUN; SUNSPOTS; TELESCOPES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Yan, X. L., Xue, Z. K., Wang, J. C., Yang, L. H., Kong, D. F., Jiang, C. W., Priest, E. R., Cao, W. D., and Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn. The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7E29.
Yan, X. L., Xue, Z. K., Wang, J. C., Yang, L. H., Kong, D. F., Jiang, C. W., Priest, E. R., Cao, W. D., & Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn. The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7E29.
Yan, X. L., Xue, Z. K., Wang, J. C., Yang, L. H., Kong, D. F., Jiang, C. W., Priest, E. R., Cao, W. D., and Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn. Thu . "The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7E29.
@article{osti_22663292,
title = {The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection},
author = {Yan, X. L. and Xue, Z. K. and Wang, J. C. and Yang, L. H. and Kong, D. F. and Jiang, C. W. and Priest, E. R. and Cao, W. D. and Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn},
abstractNote = {Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the most powerful explosions in the Sun. They are major sources of potentially destructive space weather conditions. However, the possible causes of their initiation remain controversial. Using high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, we present unusual observations of a small-scale emerging flux rope near a large sunspot, whose eruption produced an M-class flare and a coronal mass ejection. The presence of the small-scale flux rope was indicated by static nonlinear force-free field extrapolation as well as data-driven magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the dynamic evolution of the coronal three-dimensional magnetic field. During the emergence of the flux rope, rotation of satellite sunspots at the footpoints of the flux rope was observed. Meanwhile, the Lorentz force, magnetic energy, vertical current, and transverse fields were increasing during this phase. The free energy from the magnetic flux emergence and twisting magnetic fields is sufficient to power the M-class flare. These observations present, for the first time, the complete process, from the emergence of the small-scale flux rope, to the production of solar eruptions.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA7E29},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 845,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}