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Title: Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae

Abstract

Super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are tremendously luminous explosions whose power sources and progenitors are highly debated. Broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) are the only type of SNe that are connected with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Studying the spectral similarity and difference between the populations of hydrogen-poor SLSNe (SLSNe Ic) and of hydrogen-poor stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe, in particular SNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, can provide crucial observations to test predictions of theories based on various power source models and progenitor models. In this paper, we collected all of the published optical spectra of 32 SLSNe Ic, 21 SNe Ic-bl, as well as 17 SNe Ic, quantified their spectral features, constructed average spectra, and compared them in a systematic way using new tools we have developed. We find that SLSNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, including those connected with GRBs, have comparable widths for their spectral features and average absorption velocities at all phases. Thus, our findings strengthen the connection between SLSNe Ic and GRBs. In particular, SLSNe Ic have average Fe ii λ 5169 absorption velocities of −15,000 ± 2600 km s{sup −1} at 10 days after peak, which are higher than those of SNe Ic by ∼7000 km s{sup −1} on average.more » SLSNe Ic also have significantly broader Fe ii λ 5169 lines than SNe Ic. Moreover, we find that such high absorption and width velocities of SLSNe Ic may be hard to explain with the interaction model, and none of the 13 SLSNe Ic with measured absorption velocities spanning over 10 days has a convincing flat velocity evolution, which is inconsistent with the magnetar model in one dimension. Lastly, we compare SN 2011kl, the first SN connected with an ultra-long GRB, with the mean spectrum of SLSNe Ic and of SNe Ic-bl.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663253
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 845; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; DATA ANALYSIS; EXPLOSIONS; FORECASTING; GAMMA RADIATION; HYDROGEN; INTERACTIONS; NEUTRON STARS; SPECTRA; STAR EVOLUTION; SUPERNOVAE

Citation Formats

Liu, Yu-Qian, Modjaz, Maryam, and Bianco, Federica B., E-mail: YL1260@nyu.edu, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu. Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7F74.
Liu, Yu-Qian, Modjaz, Maryam, & Bianco, Federica B., E-mail: YL1260@nyu.edu, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu. Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7F74.
Liu, Yu-Qian, Modjaz, Maryam, and Bianco, Federica B., E-mail: YL1260@nyu.edu, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu. Thu . "Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA7F74.
@article{osti_22663253,
title = {Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae},
author = {Liu, Yu-Qian and Modjaz, Maryam and Bianco, Federica B., E-mail: YL1260@nyu.edu, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu},
abstractNote = {Super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are tremendously luminous explosions whose power sources and progenitors are highly debated. Broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) are the only type of SNe that are connected with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Studying the spectral similarity and difference between the populations of hydrogen-poor SLSNe (SLSNe Ic) and of hydrogen-poor stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe, in particular SNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, can provide crucial observations to test predictions of theories based on various power source models and progenitor models. In this paper, we collected all of the published optical spectra of 32 SLSNe Ic, 21 SNe Ic-bl, as well as 17 SNe Ic, quantified their spectral features, constructed average spectra, and compared them in a systematic way using new tools we have developed. We find that SLSNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, including those connected with GRBs, have comparable widths for their spectral features and average absorption velocities at all phases. Thus, our findings strengthen the connection between SLSNe Ic and GRBs. In particular, SLSNe Ic have average Fe ii λ 5169 absorption velocities of −15,000 ± 2600 km s{sup −1} at 10 days after peak, which are higher than those of SNe Ic by ∼7000 km s{sup −1} on average. SLSNe Ic also have significantly broader Fe ii λ 5169 lines than SNe Ic. Moreover, we find that such high absorption and width velocities of SLSNe Ic may be hard to explain with the interaction model, and none of the 13 SLSNe Ic with measured absorption velocities spanning over 10 days has a convincing flat velocity evolution, which is inconsistent with the magnetar model in one dimension. Lastly, we compare SN 2011kl, the first SN connected with an ultra-long GRB, with the mean spectrum of SLSNe Ic and of SNe Ic-bl.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA7F74},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 845,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}