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Title: Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales

Abstract

The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ;  [3]; ;  [4]
  1. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
  2. Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)
  3. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
  4. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663206
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 845; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; ELECTRON BEAM INJECTION; EMISSION; ENERGY SPECTRA; EVOLUTION; GALAXIES; GRAVITATION; JET MODEL; LOSSES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SURFACES; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TAIL ELECTRONS

Citation Formats

Pu, Hung-Yi, Wu, Kinwah, Younsi, Ziri, Mizuno, Yosuke, Asada, Keiichi, and Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de. Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA8136.
Pu, Hung-Yi, Wu, Kinwah, Younsi, Ziri, Mizuno, Yosuke, Asada, Keiichi, & Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de. Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA8136.
Pu, Hung-Yi, Wu, Kinwah, Younsi, Ziri, Mizuno, Yosuke, Asada, Keiichi, and Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de. Sun . "Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA8136.
@article{osti_22663206,
title = {Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales},
author = {Pu, Hung-Yi and Wu, Kinwah and Younsi, Ziri and Mizuno, Yosuke and Asada, Keiichi and Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de},
abstractNote = {The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA8136},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 845,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}