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Title: PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

Abstract

This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J  = 1–0, HCO{sup +} J  = 1–0, CS J  = 2–1, H{sup 13}CN J  = 1–0, SiO J  = 2–1, SO N{sub J}  = 2{sub 3}–1{sub 2}, and HC{sub 3}N J  = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)
  2. Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22661386
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 834; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CHEMICAL PROPERTIES; CLOUDS; DENSITY; GALAXY NUCLEI; HYDROCYANIC ACID; IMAGES; MILKY WAY; MOLECULES; NITRILES; PROBES; PROPER MOTION; RADIO TELESCOPES; SILICON OXIDES

Citation Formats

Takekawa, Shunya, Oka, Tomoharu, and Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp. PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/121.
Takekawa, Shunya, Oka, Tomoharu, & Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp. PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/121.
Takekawa, Shunya, Oka, Tomoharu, and Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp. Tue . "PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/121.
@article{osti_22661386,
title = {PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE +20 km s{sup −1} CLOUD AND THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK},
author = {Takekawa, Shunya and Oka, Tomoharu and Tanaka, Kunihiko, E-mail: shunya@aysheaia.phys.keio.ac.jp},
abstractNote = {This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J  = 1–0, HCO{sup +} J  = 1–0, CS J  = 2–1, H{sup 13}CN J  = 1–0, SiO J  = 2–1, SO N{sub J}  = 2{sub 3}–1{sub 2}, and HC{sub 3}N J  = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/121},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 834,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We report the discovery of a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates in the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud, one of the massive molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way, using interferometric submillimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O maser observations. The submillimeter continuum emission shows five 1 pc scale clumps, each of which further fragments into several 0.1 pc scale cores. We identify 17 dense cores, among which 12 are gravitationally bound. Among the 18 H{sub 2}O masers detected, 13 coincide with the cores and probably trace outflows emanating from the protostars. There are also 5more » gravitationally bound dense cores without H{sub 2}O maser detection. In total, the 13 masers and 5 cores may represent 18 protostars with spectral types later than B1 or potentially growing more massive stars at earlier evolutionary stages, given the non-detection in the centimeter radio continuum. In combination with previous studies of CH{sub 3}OH masers, we conclude that the star formation in this cloud is at an early evolutionary phase, before the presence of any significant ionizing or heating sources. Our findings indicate that star formation in this cloud may be triggered by a tidal compression as it approaches pericenter, similar to the case of G0.253+0.016 but with a higher star formation rate, and demonstrate that high angular resolution, high-sensitivity maser, and submillimeter observations are promising techniques to unveil deeply embedded star formation in the CMZ.« less
  • We recently reported a population of protostellar candidates in the 20 km s{sup −1} cloud in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way, traced by H{sub 2}O masers in gravitationally bound dense cores. In this paper, we report molecular line studies with high angular resolution (∼3″) of the environment of star formation in this cloud. Maps of various molecular line transitions as well as the continuum at 1.3 mm are obtained using the Submillimeter Array. Five NH{sub 3} inversion lines and the 1.3 cm continuum are observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The interferometric observations aremore » complemented with single-dish data. We find that the CH{sub 3}OH, SO, and HNCO lines, which are usually shock tracers, are better correlated spatially with the compact dust emission from dense cores among the detected lines. These lines also show enhancement in intensities with respect to SiO intensities toward the compact dust emission, suggesting the presence of slow shocks or hot cores in these regions. We find gas temperatures of ≳100 K at 0.1 pc scales based on RADEX modeling of the H{sub 2}CO and NH{sub 3} lines. Although no strong correlations between temperatures and linewidths/H{sub 2}O maser luminosities are found, in high-angular-resolution maps we note several candidate shock-heated regions offset from any dense cores, as well as signatures of localized heating by protostars in several dense cores. Our findings suggest that at 0.1 pc scales in this cloud star formation and strong turbulence may together affect the chemistry and temperature of the molecular gas.« less
  • We present new observations of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the circumnuclear disk (CND) of the Galaxy, which we obtained with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. We mapped emission in rotational lines of HCN J = 3-2, 4-3, and 8-7, as well as of HCO{sup +} J = 3-2, 4-3, and 9-8. We also present spectra of H{sup 13}CN J = 3-2 and 4-3 as well as H{sup 13}CO{sup +} J = 3-2 and 4-3 toward four positions in the CND. Using the intensities of all of these lines, we present an excitation analysis for each molecule using the non-LTEmore » radiative transfer code RADEX. The HCN line intensities toward the northern emission peak of the CND yield log densities (cm{sup –3}) of 5.6{sub −0.6}{sup +0.6}, consistent with those measured with HCO{sup +} as well as with densities recently reported for this region from an excitation analysis of highly excited lines of CO. These densities are too low for the gas to be tidally stable. The HCN line intensities toward the CND's southern emission peak yield log densities of 6.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.5}, higher than densities determined for this part of the CND with CO (although the densities measured with HCO{sup +}, log [n] = 5.6{sub −0.2}{sup +0.2}, are more consistent with the CO-derived densities). We investigate whether the higher densities we infer from HCN are affected by midinfrared radiative excitation of this molecule through its 14 μm rovibrational transitions. We find that radiative excitation is important for at least one clump in the CND, where we additionally detect the J = 4-3, v {sub 2} = 1 vibrationally excited transition of HCN, which is excited by dust temperatures of ≳125-150 K. If this hot dust is present elsewhere in the CND, it could lower our inferred densities, potentially bringing the HCN-derived densities for the southern part of the CND into agreement with those measured using HCO{sup +} and CO. Additional sensitive, high-resolution submillimeter observations, as well as midinfrared observations, would be useful to assess the importance of the radiative excitation of HCN in this environment.« less
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