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Title: STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM

Abstract

We examine the structure, propagation, and expansion of the shock associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme coronal mass ejection. Characteristics of the shock determined from multi-point imaging observations are compared to in situ measurements at different locations and a complex radio type II burst, which according to our definition has multiple branches that may not all be fundamental-harmonic related. The white-light shock signature can be modeled reasonably well by a spherical structure and was expanding backward even on the opposite side of the Sun. The expansion of the shock, which was roughly self-similar after the first ∼1.5 hr from launch, largely dominated over the translation of the shock center for the time period of interest. Our study also suggests a bow-shock morphology around the nose at later times due to the outward motion in combination with the expansion of the ejecta. The shock decayed and failed to reach Mercury in the backward direction and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory B ( STEREO B ) and Venus in the lateral directions, as indicated by the imaging and in situ observations. The shock in the nose direction, however, may have persisted to the far outer heliosphere, with predicted impact on Dawnmore » around 06:00 UT on July 25 and on Jupiter around 23:30 UT on July 27 by a magnetohydrodynamic model. The type II burst shows properties generally consistent with the spatial/temporal variations of the shock deduced from imaging and in situ observations. In particular, the low-frequency bands agree well with the in situ measurements of a very low density ahead of the shock at STEREO A .« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
  2. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  3. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20732 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22661368
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 834; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DENSITY; EXPANSION; HARMONICS; HELIOSPHERE; JUPITER PLANET; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; MASS; MERCURY PLANET; MORPHOLOGY; NOSE; SHOCK WAVES; SOLAR CORONA; SOLAR RADIO BURSTS; SOLAR WIND; STORMS; SUN; VENUS PLANET; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Liu, Ying D., Hu, Huidong, Zhu, Bei, Luhmann, Janet G., and Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn. STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/158.
Liu, Ying D., Hu, Huidong, Zhu, Bei, Luhmann, Janet G., & Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn. STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/158.
Liu, Ying D., Hu, Huidong, Zhu, Bei, Luhmann, Janet G., and Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn. Tue . "STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/158.
@article{osti_22661368,
title = {STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM},
author = {Liu, Ying D. and Hu, Huidong and Zhu, Bei and Luhmann, Janet G. and Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn},
abstractNote = {We examine the structure, propagation, and expansion of the shock associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme coronal mass ejection. Characteristics of the shock determined from multi-point imaging observations are compared to in situ measurements at different locations and a complex radio type II burst, which according to our definition has multiple branches that may not all be fundamental-harmonic related. The white-light shock signature can be modeled reasonably well by a spherical structure and was expanding backward even on the opposite side of the Sun. The expansion of the shock, which was roughly self-similar after the first ∼1.5 hr from launch, largely dominated over the translation of the shock center for the time period of interest. Our study also suggests a bow-shock morphology around the nose at later times due to the outward motion in combination with the expansion of the ejecta. The shock decayed and failed to reach Mercury in the backward direction and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory B ( STEREO B ) and Venus in the lateral directions, as indicated by the imaging and in situ observations. The shock in the nose direction, however, may have persisted to the far outer heliosphere, with predicted impact on Dawn around 06:00 UT on July 25 and on Jupiter around 23:30 UT on July 27 by a magnetohydrodynamic model. The type II burst shows properties generally consistent with the spatial/temporal variations of the shock deduced from imaging and in situ observations. In particular, the low-frequency bands agree well with the in situ measurements of a very low density ahead of the shock at STEREO A .},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/158},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 834,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We study the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme solar storm, for which Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the spacecraft at L1 provide multi-point remote sensing and in situ observations. The extreme solar storm, with a superfast shock and extremely enhanced ejecta magnetic fields observed near 1 au at STEREO A , was caused by the combination of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Meanwhile, energetic particles were observed by STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft such as the Advanced Composition Explorer and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory , suggesting a wide longitudinal spread of the particlesmore » at 1 au. Combining the SEP observations with in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements, we investigate the longitudinal distribution of the SEP event in connection with the associated shock and CMEs. Our results underscore the complex magnetic configuration of the inner heliosphere formed by solar eruptions. Examination of particle intensities, proton anisotropy distributions, element abundance ratios, magnetic connectivity, and spectra also gives important clues for particle acceleration, transport, and distribution.« less
  • We present a multiwavelength study of the 2012 March 5 solar eruptive event, with an emphasis on the radio triangulation of the associated radio bursts. The main points of the study are reconstruction of the propagation of shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using radio observations and finding the relative positions of the CME, the CME-driven shock wave, and its radio signatures. For the first time, radio triangulation is applied to different types of radio bursts in the same event and performed in a detailed way using goniopolarimetric observations from STEREO/Waves and WIND/Waves spacecraft. The event on 2012more » March 5 was associated with a X1.1 flare from the NOAA AR 1429 situated near the northeast limb, accompanied by a full halo CME and a radio event comprising long-lasting interplanetary type II radio bursts. The results of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the CME (using SOHO/LASCO, STEREO COR, and HI observations), and modeling with the ENLIL cone model suggest that the CME-driven shock wave arrived at 1 AU at about 12:00 UT on March 7 (as observed by SOHO/CELIAS). The results of radio triangulation show that the source of the type II radio burst was situated on the southern flank of the CME. We suggest that the interaction of the shock wave and a nearby coronal streamer resulted in the interplanetary type II radio emission.« less
  • We present a detailed study of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (full-halo CME) event that happened on 2011 February 15, making use of white-light observations by three coronagraphs and radio observations by Wind /WAVES. We applied three different methods to reconstruct the propagation direction and traveling distance of the CME and its driven shock. We measured the kinematics of the CME leading edge from white-light images observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) A and B , tracked the CME-driven shock using the frequency drift observed by Wind /WAVES together with an interplanetary density model, and obtained themore » equivalent scattering centers of the CME by the polarization ratio (PR) method. For the first time, we applied the PR method to different features distinguished from LASCO/C2 polarimetric observations and calculated their projections onto white-light images observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B . By combining the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) forward modeling with the PR method, we proposed a new GCS-PR method to derive 3D parameters of a CME observed from a single perspective at Earth. Comparisons between different methods show a good degree of consistence in the derived 3D results.« less
  • The protons in large solar energetic particle events are accelerated in the inner heliosphere by fast shocks produced by coronal mass ejections. Unless there are other sources, the protons these shocks act upon would be those of the solar wind (SW). The efficiency of the acceleration depends on the kinetic energy of the protons. For a 2000 km s{sup −1} shock, the most effective proton energies would be 30–100 keV; i.e., within the suprathermal tail component of the SW. We investigate one possible additional source of such protons: those resulting from the decay of solar-flare-produced neutrons that escape from themore » Sun into the low corona. The neutrons are produced by interactions of flare-accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. We discuss the production of low-energy neutrons in flares and their decay on a interplanetary magnetic field line near the Sun. We find that even when the flaring conditions are optimal, the 30–100 keV neutron-decay proton density produced by even a very large solar flare would be only about 10% of that of the 30–100 keV SW suprathermal tail. We discuss the implication of a seed-particle source of more frequent, small flares.« less
  • The backside coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 July 23 had a short Sun-to-Earth shock transit time (18.5 hr). The associated solar energetic particle (SEP) event had a >10 MeV proton flux peaking at ∼5000 pfu, and the energetic storm particle event was an order of magnitude larger, making it the most intense event in the space era at these energies. By a detailed analysis of the CME, shock, and SEP characteristics, we find that the July 23 event is consistent with a high-energy SEP event (accelerating particles to gigaelectronvolt energies). The times of maximum and fluence spectra in the rangemore » 10–100 MeV were very hard, similar to those of ground-level enhancement (GLE) events. We found a hierarchical relationship between the CME initial speeds and the fluence spectral indices: CMEs with low initial speeds had SEP events with the softest spectra, while those with the highest initial speeds had SEP events with the hardest spectra. CMEs attaining intermediate speeds result in moderately hard spectra. The July 23 event was in the group of hard-spectrum events. During the July 23 event, the shock speed (>2000 km s{sup −1}), the initial acceleration (∼1.70 km s{sup −2}), and the shock-formation height (∼1.5 solar radii) were all typical of GLE events. The associated type II burst had emission components from meter to kilometer wavelengths, suggesting a strong shock. These observations confirm that the 2012 July 23 event is likely to be an extreme event in terms of the energetic particles it accelerated.« less