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Title: Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence

Abstract

Asymmetric mass ejection in the early phase of supernova (SN) explosions can impart a kick velocity to the new-born neutron star (NS). For neutrino-driven explosions the NS acceleration has been shown to be mainly caused by the gravitational attraction of the anisotropically expelled inner ejecta, while hydrodynamic forces contribute on a subdominant level, and asymmetric neutrino emission plays only a secondary role. Two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that this gravitational tug-boat mechanism can explain the observed space velocities of young NSs up to more than 1000 km s{sup −1}. Here, we discuss how the NS kick depends on the energy, ejecta mass, and asymmetry of the SN explosion, and what role the compactness of the pre-collapse stellar core plays for the momentum transfer to the NS. We also provide simple analytic expressions for the NS velocity in terms of these quantities. Referring to results of hydrodynamic simulations in the literature, we argue why, within the discussed scenario of NS acceleration, electron-capture SNe, low-mass Fe-core SNe, and ultra-stripped SNe can be expected to have considerably lower intrinsic NS kicks than core-collapse SNe of massive stellar cores. Our basic arguments also remain valid if progenitor stars possess large-scale asymmetries inmore » their convective silicon and oxygen burning layers. Possible scenarios for spin-kick alignment are sketched. Much of our discussion stays on a conceptual and qualitative level, and more work is necessary on the numerical modeling side to determine the dependences of involved parameters, whose prescriptions will be needed for recipes that can be used to better describe NS kicks in binary evolution and population synthesis studies.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22661309
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 837; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; ASYMMETRY; ELECTRON CAPTURE; EMISSION; EXPLOSIONS; HYDRODYNAMICS; INSTABILITY; LAYERS; MASS; MOMENTUM TRANSFER; NEUTRINOS; NEUTRON STARS; OXYGEN; SIMULATION; SPACE; SPIN; SUPERNOVAE; SYNTHESIS; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Janka, Hans-Thomas. Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA618E.
Janka, Hans-Thomas. Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA618E.
Janka, Hans-Thomas. Wed . "Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA618E.
@article{osti_22661309,
title = {Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence},
author = {Janka, Hans-Thomas},
abstractNote = {Asymmetric mass ejection in the early phase of supernova (SN) explosions can impart a kick velocity to the new-born neutron star (NS). For neutrino-driven explosions the NS acceleration has been shown to be mainly caused by the gravitational attraction of the anisotropically expelled inner ejecta, while hydrodynamic forces contribute on a subdominant level, and asymmetric neutrino emission plays only a secondary role. Two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that this gravitational tug-boat mechanism can explain the observed space velocities of young NSs up to more than 1000 km s{sup −1}. Here, we discuss how the NS kick depends on the energy, ejecta mass, and asymmetry of the SN explosion, and what role the compactness of the pre-collapse stellar core plays for the momentum transfer to the NS. We also provide simple analytic expressions for the NS velocity in terms of these quantities. Referring to results of hydrodynamic simulations in the literature, we argue why, within the discussed scenario of NS acceleration, electron-capture SNe, low-mass Fe-core SNe, and ultra-stripped SNe can be expected to have considerably lower intrinsic NS kicks than core-collapse SNe of massive stellar cores. Our basic arguments also remain valid if progenitor stars possess large-scale asymmetries in their convective silicon and oxygen burning layers. Possible scenarios for spin-kick alignment are sketched. Much of our discussion stays on a conceptual and qualitative level, and more work is necessary on the numerical modeling side to determine the dependences of involved parameters, whose prescriptions will be needed for recipes that can be used to better describe NS kicks in binary evolution and population synthesis studies.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA618E},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 837,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique),more » focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.« less
  • We present a new series of supernova neutrino light curves and spectra calculated by numerical simulations for a variety of progenitor stellar masses (13-50 M {sub Sun }) and metallicities (Z = 0.02 and 0.004), which would be useful for a broad range of supernova neutrino studies, e.g., simulations of future neutrino burst detection by underground detectors or theoretical predictions for the relic supernova neutrino background. To follow the evolution from the onset of collapse to 20 s after the core bounce, we combine the results of neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations for the early phase and quasi-static evolutionary calculations of neutrinomore » diffusion for the late phase, with different values of shock revival time as a parameter that should depend on the still unknown explosion mechanism. We describe the calculation methods and basic results, including the dependence on progenitor models and the shock revival time. The neutrino data are publicly available electronically.« less
  • It is understood that the supernovae (SNe) associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are of Type Ib/c. The temporal coincidence of the GRB and the SN continues to represent a major enigma of Relativistic Astrophysics. We elaborate here, from the earlier paradigm, that the concept of induced gravitational collapse is essential to explain the GRB-SN connection. The specific case of a close (orbital period <1 hr) binary system composed of an evolved star with a neutron star (NS) companion is considered. We evaluate the accretion rate onto the NS of the material expelled from the explosion of the core progenitor asmore » a Type Ib/c SN and give the explicit expression of the accreted mass as a function of the nature of the components and binary parameters. We show that the NS can reach, in a few seconds, critical mass and consequently gravitationally collapse to a black hole. This gravitational collapse process leads to the emission of the GRB.« less
  • A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and compare their results with the spherically symmetric model. The bolometric light curves of the shock breakout emission are calculated by a ray-tracing method. Our radiation-hydrodynamic models indicate that the early partmore » of the shock breakout emission can be used to probe the geometry of the blast wave produced as a result of the gravitational collapse of the iron core.« less