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Title: The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

Abstract

We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 × 10{sup −14} and 4 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma regionmore » has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR log N –log S distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT  ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ; ; ;  [2];  [3]; ; ;  [4]; ;  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12] more »; « less
  1. Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  2. Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  3. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  4. Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
  5. Instituto de Astrofísica and Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)
  6. European Southern Observatory, K. Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)
  7. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  8. Georgia College, 231 W. Hancock Street, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States)
  9. Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
  10. Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)
  11. (France)
  12. DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22661128
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series; Journal Volume: 229; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; CATALOGS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC X-RAY SOURCES; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; EMISSION SPECTRA; GALAXIES; GALAXY NUCLEI; HARD X RADIATION; ION TEMPERATURE; KEV RANGE; NEBULAE; NOVAE; PLASMA; PULSARS; SENSITIVITY; TELESCOPES

Citation Formats

Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Krivonos, Roman A., Boggs, Steven E., Craig, William W., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Hailey, Charles J., Mori, Kaya, Bauer, Franz, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu, and and others. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/AA61FC.
Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Krivonos, Roman A., Boggs, Steven E., Craig, William W., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Hailey, Charles J., Mori, Kaya, Bauer, Franz, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu, & and others. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/AA61FC.
Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Krivonos, Roman A., Boggs, Steven E., Craig, William W., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Hailey, Charles J., Mori, Kaya, Bauer, Franz, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu, and and others. Sat . "The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/AA61FC.
@article{osti_22661128,
title = {The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region},
author = {Fornasini, Francesca M. and Tomsick, John A. and Chiu, Jeng-Lun and Clavel, Maïca and Krivonos, Roman A. and Boggs, Steven E. and Craig, William W. and Hong, JaeSub and Gotthelf, Eric V. and Hailey, Charles J. and Mori, Kaya and Bauer, Franz and Corral-Santana, Jesús and Rahoui, Farid and Stern, Daniel and Bodaghee, Arash and Alexander, David M. and Barret, Didier and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 and Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 × 10{sup −14} and 4 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR log N –log S distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT  ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4365/AA61FC},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 2,
volume = 229,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}