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Title: SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION

Abstract

Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α  coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm{sup −2} in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead itmore » is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.« less

Authors:
 [1];
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22660965
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 832; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; ANGULAR MOMENTUM; DENSITY; ENERGY LOSSES; HEATING; HYDRODYNAMICS; MASS; PLANETS; RADIATIVE COOLING; SATELLITES; SHOCK WAVES; STARS; SURFACES; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VORTICES; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Zhu, Zhaohuan, Ju, Wenhua, and Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu. SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/832/2/193.
Zhu, Zhaohuan, Ju, Wenhua, & Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu. SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/832/2/193
Zhu, Zhaohuan, Ju, Wenhua, and Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu. 2016. "SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/832/2/193.
@article{osti_22660965,
title = {SHOCK-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVABLES AND SATELLITE FORMATION},
author = {Zhu, Zhaohuan and Ju, Wenhua and Stone, James M., E-mail: zhzhu@physics.unlv.edu},
abstractNote = {Circumplanetary disks (CPDs) control the growth of planets, supply material for satellites to form, and provide observational signatures of young forming planets. We have carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling to study CPDs and suggested a new mechanism to drive the disk accretion. Two spiral shocks are present in CPDs, excited by the central star. We find that spiral shocks can at least contribute to, if not dominate, the angular momentum transport and energy dissipation in CPDs. Meanwhile, dissipation and heating by spiral shocks have a positive feedback on shock-driven accretion itself. As the disk is heated up by spiral shocks, the shocks become more open, leading to more efficient angular momentum transport. This shock-driven accretion is, on the other hand, unsteady due to production and destruction of vortices in disks. After being averaged over time, a quasi-steady accretion is reached from the planet’s Hill radius all the way to the planet surface, and the disk α  coefficient characterizing angular momentum transport is ∼0.001–0.02. The disk surface density ranges from 10 to 1000 g cm{sup −2} in our simulations, which is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the “minimum-mass subnebula” model used to study satellite formation; instead it is more consistent with the “gas-starved” satellite formation model. Finally, we calculate the millimeter flux emitted by CPDs at ALMA and EVLA wavelength bands and predict the flux for several recently discovered CPD candidates, which suggests that ALMA is capable of discovering these accreting CPDs.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/832/2/193},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22660965}, journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 832,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}