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Title: Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization

Abstract

Being hydrophilic material, crab shell particles have only a limited number of applications. It is, therefore, necessary to modify the surface of the crab shell particles. To make them useful ever for the applications, the main theme we proposed in this article is to utilize crab shell particles (CSP) with the core coated with nickel phosphorus (NiP) as a shell using the electroless coating process. For dealing with serious environmental problems, utilization of waste bio-shells is always an important factor to be considered. Chelating ability of crab shell particles eliminates the surface activation in this work proceeding to the coating process. The functional group, phase structure, microstructure, chemical composition and thermal analysis of CSP and NiP/CSP were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction analyzer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The combination of an amorphous and crystalline structure was exhibited by CSP and NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP has shown a better thermal stability when compared to uncoated CSP. Stability test, adsorption test, and conductivity test were conducted for the study of adsorption behavior and conductivity of the particles. CSP presented a hydrophilic property in contrast to hydrophobic NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP presented a conductivitymore » of about 44% greater compared to the CSP without any fluctuations. - Highlights: • Utilization of crab shell waste is focused on. • NiP coating on crab shell particle is fabricated using electroless process. • Thermal analysis, stability test, adsorption test and conductivity test were done. • Organic matrix of crab shell particle favors the coating process. • Results demonstrate the characterization of CSP core – NiP shell structure.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658242
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 248; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ADSORPTION; CHELATING AGENTS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CRABS; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION; INFRARED SPECTRA; NICKEL PHOSPHIDES; PARTICLES; PHOSPHORUS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SURFACE COATING; THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Arulvel, S., E-mail: gs.arulvel.research@gmail.com, Elayaperumal, A., and Jagatheeshwaran, M.S. Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.02.001.
Arulvel, S., E-mail: gs.arulvel.research@gmail.com, Elayaperumal, A., & Jagatheeshwaran, M.S. Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.02.001.
Arulvel, S., E-mail: gs.arulvel.research@gmail.com, Elayaperumal, A., and Jagatheeshwaran, M.S. Sat . "Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.02.001.
@article{osti_22658242,
title = {Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization},
author = {Arulvel, S., E-mail: gs.arulvel.research@gmail.com and Elayaperumal, A. and Jagatheeshwaran, M.S.},
abstractNote = {Being hydrophilic material, crab shell particles have only a limited number of applications. It is, therefore, necessary to modify the surface of the crab shell particles. To make them useful ever for the applications, the main theme we proposed in this article is to utilize crab shell particles (CSP) with the core coated with nickel phosphorus (NiP) as a shell using the electroless coating process. For dealing with serious environmental problems, utilization of waste bio-shells is always an important factor to be considered. Chelating ability of crab shell particles eliminates the surface activation in this work proceeding to the coating process. The functional group, phase structure, microstructure, chemical composition and thermal analysis of CSP and NiP/CSP were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction analyzer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The combination of an amorphous and crystalline structure was exhibited by CSP and NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP has shown a better thermal stability when compared to uncoated CSP. Stability test, adsorption test, and conductivity test were conducted for the study of adsorption behavior and conductivity of the particles. CSP presented a hydrophilic property in contrast to hydrophobic NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP presented a conductivity of about 44% greater compared to the CSP without any fluctuations. - Highlights: • Utilization of crab shell waste is focused on. • NiP coating on crab shell particle is fabricated using electroless process. • Thermal analysis, stability test, adsorption test and conductivity test were done. • Organic matrix of crab shell particle favors the coating process. • Results demonstrate the characterization of CSP core – NiP shell structure.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.02.001},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
number = ,
volume = 248,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Powder metallurgy iron specimens with porosities in the range 0% to 2% were electroless coated with nickel-phosphorus alloy from baths containing sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O). The effect of coating time on thickness and phosphorus content of the deposit was analyzed. The free corrosion potentials and corrosion rates of the coated specimens were obtained by the Tafel extrapolation method in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Corrosion rates of the coated specimens after heat treatment also were studied. The observed corrosion characteristics were explained by the mixed-potential theory.
  • The film properties and the heat change properties of new electroless plated Ni-Mo-P alloy films, which were deposited from a newly developed simpler bath with direct addition of Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, were investigated as a basis for developing new functional thin film. Both amorphous and crystallized Ni-Mo-P alloy films were prepared by simply controlling the Na/sub 2/-MoO/sub 4/ concentration in the baths. The maximum molybdenum content of 14.9 atom percent (22.3 weight percent) was attained at a Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ concentration of 0.020 mol dm /sup -3/, and the films having high resistivity and high thermal stability were obtained. Themore » formation of solid solution between Ni matrix and codeposited Mo was indicated on the basis of comparison with bulk Ni-Mo alloy. The amorphous Ni-Mo-P alloy film had much better thermal stability than did the amorphous Ni-P alloy film. In the case of crystallized Ni-Mo-P alloy film, the small grain size of electroless Ni-Mo-P alloy film was maintained even after heat-treatment up to 400/sup 0/C. The crystallization process of the amorphous and crystallized Ni-Mo-P alloy films by heat-treatment was quite different from that of an ordinary electroless Ni-P alloy film. Three structural changes resulting from heat-treatment were observed in electroless Ni-Mo-P alloy films, namely, The formation of Ni/sub 3/P, the crystallization of Ni-Mo alloy, and the transformation of Ni-Mo alloy. A schematic model of Ni-Mo-P alloy films composed of two phases or zones, namely, the Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P, was proposed to explain the heat change properties of Ni-Mo-P alloy films.« less
  • Electroless nickel-phosphorus deposits of approximately 10% phosphorus and about 20 {micro}m thickness are shown either to have no effect or sometimes to increase the corrosion-fatigue properties of a quenched and tempered AISI 1045 steel in the stress amplitude range of 481 to 687 MPa, in the presence of an aqueous solution of 3% sodium chloride. Such an increase is produced when the stress amplitude is below 516 MPa. For the notched specimens, no substantial differences are found between the fatigue life of the coated and uncoated specimens.
  • The influence of an industrial electroless nickel-phosphorus deposit on the corrosion-fatigue properties of an annealed AISI 1045 steel has been investigated. For this purpose, three corrosive media were selected: distilled water and two NaCl solutions of different concentration (3 and 5%) in distilled water. Corrosion-fatigue tests were conducted at alternating stress levels ranging between 219 and 329 MPa at a frequency of 50 Hz. The corrosion-fatigue properties of the coated and uncoated substrates are very similar when testing is conducted in salty water. However, for testing in distilled water the corrosion-fatigue properties of coated substrates were diminished in relation tomore » the uncoated material. The fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed the presence of fatigue marks within the electroless nickel-phosphorus deposit, which indicate that the fracture mechanism of the coating is associated to the cyclic loading of the material.« less
  • Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectronmore » spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4]][sub 2]) relative to nickel hydroxide (Ni[OH][sub 2]) and nickel oxide (NiO). This mechanism predicted an inverse relationship between the thickness of the protective film on EN and its P content, which was consistent with experimental observations.« less