skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

Abstract

The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-basedmore » bio-materials.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658205
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 246; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; EXTRACTION; GRAPHENE; OXIDATION; OXIDES; OXYGEN; REDUCING AGENTS

Citation Formats

Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com, Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn, Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn, Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com, and Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.12.008.
Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com, Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn, Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn, Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com, & Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.12.008.
Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com, Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn, Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn, Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com, and Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com. Wed . "Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.12.008.
@article{osti_22658205,
title = {Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract},
author = {Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com and Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn and Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn and Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com and Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com},
abstractNote = {The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.12.008},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
number = ,
volume = 246,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene filmsmore » depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded.« less
  • Highlights: • RGO-1 and RGO-2 were synthesized by green method using different phytoextracts. • M. indica L., S. tuberosum L. phytoextracts act as reducing and stabilizing agents. • Conjugated structure of graphene is established following partial reduction of GO. • Electrical conductivities of RGO-1 and RGO-2 are higher than GO. - Abstract: An environmentally friendly method has been applied for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). This method was developed by using polyphenols that contained a phytoextract of Mangifera indica L. along with Solanum tuberosum L. as reducing agents since they are non-toxic and naturally available. The phytoextracts usedmore » in the production of RGO was set between 60 and 70 °C. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by modified Hummer’s method as reported in earlier findings. Structural and morphological studies demonstrate that the part of the oxygen functionalities in GO can be removed by following green reduction. Characterizations of the resulting product have been done by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy. FESEM, TEM, EDX spectrum, TGA, DLS and Zeta potential measurements of the samples have also been carried out to study the morphological, thermal and surface charge characteristics. Electrical conductivity was also measured to check the extent of reduction of GO to RGO.« less
  • Preparing high-quality graphene through reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by oxalic acid is demonstrated in this paper. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry were taken to confirm the reduction of GO and the formation of graphene under these mild conditions. Thermogravimetric analysis and conductivity measurements further testify the excellent thermal stability and conductivity of the obtained graphene. A possible mechanism for the reduction process was also proposed. Furthermore, a Pt-graphene composite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was observed. With advantages of lowmore » toxicity, simple purification process and high quality of the product, oxalic acid provides a feasible route to prepare graphene from GO under mild conditions, thus facilitating the use of graphene-based materials for large-scale applications.« less
  • Highlights: • Graphene was prepared via a novel and facile solvothermal reduction method for graphite oxide. • Most of the oxygen functional groups of graphite oxide were removed. • The reduced graphene oxide obtained was featured with bilayer nanosheets. - Abstract: In this work, a facile reduction strategy is reported for the fabrication of graphene. Graphite oxide (GO) is reduced via a novel solvothermal reaction in a mixed solution of acetone and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). The structure, surface chemistry, morphology and thermal stability of the as-prepared reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopymore » (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that most of the oxygenated groups in GO are effectively removed in this solvothermal reaction. The novel reduction method provides a simple, cost-effective and efficient strategy for the fabrication of graphene.« less
  • Natural flake Graphite was used as the starting material for the graphene synthesis. In the first step flake graphite was treated with oxidizing agents under vigorous conditions to obtain graphite oxide. Layered graphite oxide decorated with oxygen has large inter-layer distance leading easy exfoliation into single sheets by ultrasonication giving graphene oxide. In the last step exfoliated graphene oxide sheets were reduced slowly with the help of reducing agent to obtain fine powder which is labeled as reduced graphene oxide (rGO). This rGO was further characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),more » Raman Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern shows peaks corresponding to (002) graphitic lattice planes indicating the formation of network of sp{sup 2} like carbon structure. SEM images show the ultrathin, wrinkled, paper-like morphology of graphene sheets. IR study shows that the graphite has been oxidized to graphite oxide with the presence of various absorption bands confirming the presence of oxidizing groups. The FTIR spectrum of rGO shows no sharp peaks confirming the efficient reduction of rGO. The Raman spectrum shows disorder in the graphene sheets.« less