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Title: Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

Abstract

Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism hasmore » been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long-range magnetic interactions with cluster and spin-glass type growth. - Highlights: • Lattice defects/vacancies attributed high T{sub c} –ferromagnetism. • Transition metal and rare earth ions deform the wurtzite ZnO lattice to induce defects. • Oxygen vacancies are more favorable than Zn with Ni, Cu, Ce into ZnO. • Defects assisted long-range ferromagnetism of doped ZnO include cluster and spin-glass growth.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)
  2. CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658179
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 246; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4596
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CERIUM IONS; COPPER IONS; DEFECTS; DOPED MATERIALS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; FERROMAGNETISM; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION; INFRARED SPECTRA; NANOPARTICLES; NICKEL IONS; OXYGEN; RARE EARTHS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; ZINC OXIDES

Citation Formats

Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com, and Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.018.
Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com, & Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.018.
Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com, and Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com. Wed . "Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.018.
@article{osti_22658179,
title = {Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions},
author = {Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com and Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com},
abstractNote = {Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long-range magnetic interactions with cluster and spin-glass type growth. - Highlights: • Lattice defects/vacancies attributed high T{sub c} –ferromagnetism. • Transition metal and rare earth ions deform the wurtzite ZnO lattice to induce defects. • Oxygen vacancies are more favorable than Zn with Ni, Cu, Ce into ZnO. • Defects assisted long-range ferromagnetism of doped ZnO include cluster and spin-glass growth.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.018},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
issn = {0022-4596},
number = ,
volume = 246,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {2}
}