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Title: Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting

Abstract

This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved inmore » the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass gives QC emissions upon 266 and 355 nm excitations. • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass also emits intense green color on excitation with 976 nm. • The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass may be used in solar cell and display devices.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658169
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 246; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; BORATES; COBALT; CUTTING; DOPED MATERIALS; EMISSION SPECTRA; ENERGY LEVELS; ENERGY TRANSFER; EXCITATION; GLASS; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; SOLAR CELLS; TERBIUM IONS; YTTERBIUM IONS

Citation Formats

Bahadur, A., Yadav, R.S., Yadav, R.V., and Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.004.
Bahadur, A., Yadav, R.S., Yadav, R.V., & Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.004.
Bahadur, A., Yadav, R.S., Yadav, R.V., and Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in. Wed . "Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.004.
@article{osti_22658169,
title = {Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting},
author = {Bahadur, A. and Yadav, R.S. and Yadav, R.V. and Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in},
abstractNote = {This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved in the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass gives QC emissions upon 266 and 355 nm excitations. • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass also emits intense green color on excitation with 976 nm. • The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass may be used in solar cell and display devices.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.11.004},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
number = ,
volume = 246,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss betweenmore » Yb{sup 3+} ions.« less
  • Dual-mode luminescence (downshifting-DS and upconversion-UC) properties of Pr{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0) phosphors synthesized by solid state reaction technique have been explored with and without Gd{sup 3+} ion. The structural characterizations (XRD, SEM, and FTIR) confirm the pure phase of YNbO{sub 4} phosphor. Further, with the Gd{sup 3+} ion co-doping, the YNbO{sub 4} phosphors having a random shape and the large particle size are found to be transformed into nearly spherical shape particles with the reduced particle size. The optical band gaps (E{sub g}) of Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, andmore » 1.00) calculated from UV-Vis-NIR measurements are ∼3.69, 4.00, 4.38, and 4.44 eV, respectively. Moreover, YNbO{sub 4} phosphor is a promising blue emitting material, whereas Y{sub 1−x−y−z}Pr{sub y}Yb{sub z}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} phosphor gives intense green, blue, and red emissions via dual-mode optical processes. The broad blue emission arises due to (NbO{sub 4}){sup 3−} group of the host with λ{sub ex} = 264 nm, whereas Pr{sup 3+} doped YNbO{sub 4} phosphor gives dominant red and blue emissions along with comparatively weak green emission on excitation with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm. The concentration dependent variation in emission intensity at 491 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition); at 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 658 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}F{sub 2} transition) of Pr{sup 3+} ion in YNbO{sub 4} phosphor with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm excitations, respectively, has been thoroughly explored and explained by the cross-relaxation process through different channels. The sensitization effect of Bi{sup 3+} ion co-doping on DS properties of the phosphor has also been studied. The observed DS results have been optimized by varying the concentration of Pr{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} ions, and the results are explained by the well-known simple band structure model. The study of Gd{sup 3+} co-doping reveals noticeable differences in DS characteristics of Y{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}NbO{sub 4} phosphors: the overall decrement and increment (except for 612 nm emission) in intensity of DS emission on excitation with λ{sub ex} = 264 nm and 491 nm, respectively. These observations have been thoroughly explained, and the {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition (612 nm) of Pr{sup 3+} ion is found to be strongly dependent on surrounding environment of the host matrix. The UC properties of Y{sub 0.95−x}Pr{sub x}Yb{sub 0.05}NbO{sub 4} phosphors have been explored using Near Infra-Red (NIR) excitation. The material gives intense green and relatively weak blue and red UC emissions with λ{sub ex} = 980 nm. Interestingly, the UC emission intensity is further enhanced in the case of Y{sub 0.949−x}Pr{sub 0.001}Yb{sub 0.05}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} phosphors. In addition, the less explored laser induced heating effect with the pump power as well as the irradiation time on the UC emission has been explored in Y{sub 0.949−x}Pr{sub 0.001}Yb{sub 0.05}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.5, and 0.949) phosphor samples, and subsequently, this feature has been found to be superior for Gd{sub 0.949}Pr{sub 0.001}Yb{sub 0.05}NbO{sub 4} phosphor. The comparative study between the two hosts, viz., YNbO{sub 4} and GdNbO{sub 4} shows that GdNbO{sub 4} is better than YNbO{sub 4} for UC emission behavior; however, a reverse is observed as for as DS behavior is concerned only for the particular excitation wavelength (λ{sub ex} = 264 nm).« less
  • Frequency upconversion (UC) luminescence via cooperative energy transfer (CET) process between pairs of Yb{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions was investigated in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystalline ceramic powders prepared by combustion synthesis. Surface morphology and structure of the powders were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Photoluminescence experiments were performed in Tb{sup 3+}-singly doped samples using ultraviolet light (λ=255 nm) and in Tb{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+} co-doped samples using a near-infrared (NIR) diode laser (λ=975 nm). Upon excitation with the NIR diode laser, UC luminescence with an intense emission band centered at ∼549 nm, corresponding tomore » the 4f intraband {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+}, along with less intense emission bands at ∼490, ∼590 and ∼620 nm, corresponding to other {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions, was detected. The CET rate was estimated by analyzing the dynamics of UC luminescence with rate equations model of the electronic populations. -- Graphical Abstract: Left: Cooperative upconversion luminescence spectra of three powder samples prepared by combustion synthesis. Right: The SEM image of the powder showing that it consists of agglomerated flake-like shaped particles of various sizes. Full scale bar is 20 μm. Highlights: • Yttrium orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) powders were prepared by combustion synthesis. • Cooperative upconversion is observed for the first time in Tb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}. • Energy transfer and back-transfer rates between Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} pairs were estimated.« less
  • Transparent glass ceramics in the system SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PbO-CdO-PbF{sub 2}-CdF{sub 2}-YbF{sub 3}-ErF{sub 3} showing infrared to visible anti-Stokes (upconversion) luminescence are studied in the present work. The glass compositions have been optimized in order to reduce the melting temperature and, hence, to obtain laboratory scale samples with good optical quality. Erbium-doped nanoscale Pb{sub 4}Yb{sub 3}F{sub 17} crystals are precipitated in the precursor glasses during annealing at temperatures 30-40 K above T{sub g}. A kinetically self-constrained growth explains the nano sizes of the crystals. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of glasses could be explained with clustering of themore » Yb{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} ions in fluorine-rich regions. At the annealing temperature these regions act as nucleation precursors. The crystal growth further enhances the local concentration of these ions. Consequently, a series of energy transfer and energy cross relaxation processes occurs between adjacent rare earth ions leading to the observed luminescence spectra of the glass ceramics studied. -- Graphical abstract: A highly viscous shell (shown in the picture in dark blue) is build around the growing crystal (white circles). When the shell's T{sub g} approaches the annealing temperature, the crystal growth is fully suppressed for kinetic reasons. The upconversion luminescence, resulting from the simultaneous absorption of two and even three infrared photons, is depicted schematically in the right part of the figure. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} New oxyfluoride glass compositions with reduced melting temperature are formulated. {yields} The phase Pb{sub 4}Yb{sub 3}F{sub 17} doped with Er{sup 3+} ions crystallizes in these glasses. {yields} A kinetically self-constrained growth explains the nano sizes of the crystals. {yields} Clustering of Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions into fluorine-rich glass regions is observed. {yields} The luminescence of glass-ceramics is consistent with its structure.« less
  • Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} codoped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized. The formation of CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals in the glass ceramics was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The incorporation of Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} into CaF{sub 2} nanocrystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Infrared quantum cutting involving Yb{sup 3+} 950-1100 nm ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) emission was achieved upon the excitation of {sup 5}D{sub 4} energy level of Tb{sup 3+} at 484 nm. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for these glass ceramics. Yb{sup 3+} concentration dependent quantummore » efficiency was calculated, and the maximum efficiency approaches 155% before reaching concentration quenching threshold.« less