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Title: Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

Abstract

In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI{sub 2} and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI{sub 2} film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I is fostered for PbI{sub 2} films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI{sub 2} on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NCH{sub 3} molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI{sub 2} and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increasedmore » PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI{sub 2} (001) crystallite planes. • CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI{sub 2} PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI{sub 2} residue at the bottom of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} improves device performance.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658116
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 244; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4596
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS; CHEMICAL PREPARATION; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CLATHRATES; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; FILMS; LEAD IODIDES; PEROVSKITE; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; SOLAR CELLS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Ioakeimidis, Apostolos, Christodoulou, Christos, Lux-Steiner, Martha, and Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos. Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.08.034.
Ioakeimidis, Apostolos, Christodoulou, Christos, Lux-Steiner, Martha, & Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos. Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.08.034.
Ioakeimidis, Apostolos, Christodoulou, Christos, Lux-Steiner, Martha, and Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos. Thu . "Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.08.034.
@article{osti_22658116,
title = {Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite},
author = {Ioakeimidis, Apostolos and Christodoulou, Christos and Lux-Steiner, Martha and Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos},
abstractNote = {In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI{sub 2} and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI{sub 2} film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I is fostered for PbI{sub 2} films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI{sub 2} on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NCH{sub 3} molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI{sub 2} and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increased PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI{sub 2} (001) crystallite planes. • CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI{sub 2} PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI{sub 2} residue at the bottom of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} improves device performance.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.08.034},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
issn = {0022-4596},
number = ,
volume = 244,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}