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Title: Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries

Abstract

Chromium oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}, was synthesized by pyrolyzing CrO{sub 3} at 350 °C and employed as a new cathode in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na rechargeable batteries delivered high specific capacities up to 310 mAh/g at a current density of C/16 (or 20 mA/g). High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR both qualitatively and quantitatively revealed the reversible intercalation of Na ions into the bulk electrode and participation of Na ions in the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase largely at low potentials. Amorphization of the electrode structure occurred during the first discharge revealed by both NMR and X-ray diffraction data. CrO{sub 3}-catalyzed electrolyte degradation and loss in electronic conductivity led to gradual capacity fading. The specific capacity stabilized at >120 mAh/g after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Further improvement in electrochemical performance is possible via electrode surface modification, polymer binder incorporation, or designs of new morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical profile of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na battery cell and high-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectrum of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode discharged to 2 V. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} was synthesized and used as a new cathode in rechargeable Na ion batteries. • A high capacity of 310more » mAh/g and an energy density of 564 Wh/kg were achieved. • High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR was employed to follow the reaction mechanisms.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)
  2. Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22658060
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 242; Journal Issue: Part 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4596
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CAPACITY; CATHODES; CHROMATES; CHROMIUM OXIDES; CURRENT DENSITY; ENERGY DENSITY; IONIC CRYSTALS; NMR SPECTRA; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; REACTION KINETICS; SODIUM IONS; SOLID ELECTROLYTES; SYNTHESIS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Feng, Xu-Yong, Chien, Po-Hsiu, Rose, Alyssa M., Zheng, Jin, Hung, Ivan, Gan, Zhehong, Hu, Yan-Yan, and Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.05.004.
Feng, Xu-Yong, Chien, Po-Hsiu, Rose, Alyssa M., Zheng, Jin, Hung, Ivan, Gan, Zhehong, Hu, Yan-Yan, & Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.05.004
Feng, Xu-Yong, Chien, Po-Hsiu, Rose, Alyssa M., Zheng, Jin, Hung, Ivan, Gan, Zhehong, Hu, Yan-Yan, and Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310. Sat . "Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.05.004.
@article{osti_22658060,
title = {Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries},
author = {Feng, Xu-Yong and Chien, Po-Hsiu and Rose, Alyssa M. and Zheng, Jin and Hung, Ivan and Gan, Zhehong and Hu, Yan-Yan and Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310},
abstractNote = {Chromium oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}, was synthesized by pyrolyzing CrO{sub 3} at 350 °C and employed as a new cathode in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na rechargeable batteries delivered high specific capacities up to 310 mAh/g at a current density of C/16 (or 20 mA/g). High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR both qualitatively and quantitatively revealed the reversible intercalation of Na ions into the bulk electrode and participation of Na ions in the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase largely at low potentials. Amorphization of the electrode structure occurred during the first discharge revealed by both NMR and X-ray diffraction data. CrO{sub 3}-catalyzed electrolyte degradation and loss in electronic conductivity led to gradual capacity fading. The specific capacity stabilized at >120 mAh/g after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Further improvement in electrochemical performance is possible via electrode surface modification, polymer binder incorporation, or designs of new morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical profile of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na battery cell and high-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectrum of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode discharged to 2 V. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} was synthesized and used as a new cathode in rechargeable Na ion batteries. • A high capacity of 310 mAh/g and an energy density of 564 Wh/kg were achieved. • High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR was employed to follow the reaction mechanisms.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2016.05.004},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22658060}, journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
issn = {0022-4596},
number = Part 2,
volume = 242,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}