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Title: Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

Abstract

The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M {sub •} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) hosted in small isolated halos ( M {sub h} ≲ 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M {sub •}– σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10{sup 4–6}more » M {sub ⊙}, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
  2. Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654560
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; BLACK HOLES; COSMOLOGY; EFFICIENCY; EVOLUTION; FEEDBACK; MASS; MILKY WAY; QUASARS; RED SHIFT; STARS; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Pacucci, Fabio, Natarajan, Priyamvada, and Ferrara, Andrea. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/835/2/L36.
Pacucci, Fabio, Natarajan, Priyamvada, & Ferrara, Andrea. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/835/2/L36.
Pacucci, Fabio, Natarajan, Priyamvada, and Ferrara, Andrea. Wed . "Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/835/2/L36.
@article{osti_22654560,
title = {Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes},
author = {Pacucci, Fabio and Natarajan, Priyamvada and Ferrara, Andrea},
abstractNote = {The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M {sub •} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) hosted in small isolated halos ( M {sub h} ≲ 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M {sub •}– σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10{sup 4–6} M {sub ⊙}, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/835/2/L36},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}