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Title: The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers

Abstract

The most popular model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) involves the coalescence of binary neutron stars. Because the progenitor is actually hidden from view, we must consider under which circumstances such merging systems are capable of producing a successful sGRB. Soon after coalescence, winds are launched from the merger remnant. In this paper, we use realistic wind profiles derived from global merger simulations in order to investigate the interaction of sGRB jets with these winds using numerical simulations. We analyze the conditions for which these axisymmetric winds permit relativistic jets to break out and produce an sGRB. We find that jets with luminosities comparable to those observed in sGRBs are only successful when their half-opening angles are below ≈20°. This jet collimation mechanism leads to a simple physical interpretation of the luminosities and opening angles inferred for sGRBs. If wide, low-luminosity jets are observed, they might be indicative of a different progenitor avenue such as the merger of a neutron star with a black hole. We also use the observed durations of sGRB to place constraints on the lifetime of the wind phase, which is determined by the time it takes the jet to break out. In all cases wemore » find that the derived limits argue against completely stable remnants for binary neutron star mergers that produce sGRBs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
  2. Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-543 04510 D. F. (Mexico)
  3. Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
  4. Astronomy and Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
  5. Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
  6. Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264 04510 D. F. (Mexico)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654557
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AXIAL SYMMETRY; BLACK HOLES; COALESCENCE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; GAMMA RADIATION; HYDRODYNAMICS; INTERACTIONS; LIMITING VALUES; LUMINOSITY; NEUTRON STARS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; STELLAR WINDS

Citation Formats

Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna, Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, Montes, Gabriela, De Colle, Fabio, Rezzolla, Luciano, Takami, Kentaro, Rosswog, Stephan, Perego, Albino, and Lee, William H. The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5B9E.
Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna, Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, Montes, Gabriela, De Colle, Fabio, Rezzolla, Luciano, Takami, Kentaro, Rosswog, Stephan, Perego, Albino, & Lee, William H. The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5B9E.
Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna, Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, Montes, Gabriela, De Colle, Fabio, Rezzolla, Luciano, Takami, Kentaro, Rosswog, Stephan, Perego, Albino, and Lee, William H. Wed . "The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5B9E.
@article{osti_22654557,
title = {The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers},
author = {Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna and Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico and Montes, Gabriela and De Colle, Fabio and Rezzolla, Luciano and Takami, Kentaro and Rosswog, Stephan and Perego, Albino and Lee, William H.},
abstractNote = {The most popular model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) involves the coalescence of binary neutron stars. Because the progenitor is actually hidden from view, we must consider under which circumstances such merging systems are capable of producing a successful sGRB. Soon after coalescence, winds are launched from the merger remnant. In this paper, we use realistic wind profiles derived from global merger simulations in order to investigate the interaction of sGRB jets with these winds using numerical simulations. We analyze the conditions for which these axisymmetric winds permit relativistic jets to break out and produce an sGRB. We find that jets with luminosities comparable to those observed in sGRBs are only successful when their half-opening angles are below ≈20°. This jet collimation mechanism leads to a simple physical interpretation of the luminosities and opening angles inferred for sGRBs. If wide, low-luminosity jets are observed, they might be indicative of a different progenitor avenue such as the merger of a neutron star with a black hole. We also use the observed durations of sGRB to place constraints on the lifetime of the wind phase, which is determined by the time it takes the jet to break out. In all cases we find that the derived limits argue against completely stable remnants for binary neutron star mergers that produce sGRBs.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/AA5B9E},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the trigger—the actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering an sGRB—but also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativisticmore » outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce an sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (≤100 ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of successful breakthrough of the jet through the neutrino-driven wind, the energy stored in the cocoon could contribute to the precursor and extended emission observed in sGRBs.« less
  • The merger of a binary system composed of a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) may leave behind a torus of hot, dense matter orbiting around the BH. While numerical-relativity simulations are necessary to simulate this process accurately, they are also computationally expensive and unable at present to cover the large space of possible parameters, which include the relative mass ratio, the stellar compactness, and the BH spin. To mitigate this and provide a first reasonable coverage of the space of parameters, we have developed a method for estimating the mass of the remnant torus from BH-NS mergers.more » The toy model makes use of an improved relativistic affine model to describe the tidal deformations of an extended tri-axial ellipsoid orbiting around a Kerr BH and measures the mass of the remnant torus by considering which of the fluid particles composing the star are on bound orbits at the time of the tidal disruption. We tune the toy model by using the results of fully general-relativistic simulations obtaining relative precisions of a few percent and use it to investigate the space of parameters extensively. In this way, we find that the torus mass is largest for systems with highly spinning BHs, small stellar compactnesses, and large mass ratios. As an example, tori as massive as M{sub b,tor} {approx_equal} 1.33 M{sub sun} can be produced for a very extended star with compactness C {approx_equal} 0.1 inspiralling around a BH with dimensionless spin parameter a = 0.85 and mass ratio q {approx_equal} 0.3. However, for a more astrophysically reasonable mass ratio q {approx_equal} 0.14 and a canonical value of the stellar compactness C {approx_equal} 0.145, the toy model sets a considerably smaller upper limit of M{sub b,tor} {approx}< 0.34 M{sub sun}.« less
  • The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of ≲ 10°. The collimation mechanism of the jet is a longstanding theoretical problem. We numerically analyze the jet propagation in the material ejected by a double neutron star (NS) merger, and demonstrate that if the ejecta mass is ≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or newmore » types of events with low luminosity. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova candidate, we infer that the equation of state of NSs would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event is associated with a double NS merger.« less
  • We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity (GRMHD) of quasi-circular, equal-mass, binary neutron stars that undergo merger. The initial stars are irrotational, n = 1 polytropes and are magnetized. We explore two types of magnetic-field geometries: one where each star is endowed with a dipole magnetic field extending from the interior into the exterior, as in a pulsar, and the other where the dipole field is initially confined to the interior. In both cases the adopted magnetic fields are initially dynamically unimportant. The merger outcome is a hypermassive neutron star that undergoes delayed collapse to a black hole (spinmore » parameter a / M {sub BH} ∼ 0.74) immersed in a magnetized accretion disk. About 4000 M ∼ 60( M {sub NS}/1.625 M {sub ⊙}) ms following merger, the region above the black hole poles becomes strongly magnetized, and a collimated, mildly relativistic outflow—an incipient jet—is launched. The lifetime of the accretion disk, which likely equals the lifetime of the jet, is Δ t ∼ 0.1 ( M {sub NS}/1.625 M {sub ⊙}) s. In contrast to black hole–neutron star mergers, we find that incipient jets are launched even when the initial magnetic field is confined to the interior of the stars.« less
  • Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s),more » which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .« less