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Title: Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546

Abstract

We present H -band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r ∼ 0.″3 to r ∼1″ (34–114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east–west direction (PA ∼ 75°), is inclined by i ∼ 70°–75°, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk’s eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t ∼ 1–250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3–10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga’s star formation history. SCExAO’s planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk’s visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk maymore » be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet–disk interactions.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ;  [6];  [7];  [8]; ;  [9]; ;  [10];  [11];  [12] more »; « less
  1. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
  2. Astrobiology Center, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)
  3. IPAC-NExScI, Mail Code 100-22, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  4. Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  5. Institute for Astronomy, ETH-Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
  6. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  7. Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
  8. Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC (United States)
  9. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  10. Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  11. Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
  12. Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654544
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 836; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DUSTS; IMAGES; INTERACTIONS; MASS; OPTICS; PLANETS; RINGS; SCATTERING; STARS; VISIBILITY; VISIBLE RADIATION; VORTICES

Citation Formats

Currie, Thayne, Guyon, Olivier, Kudo, Tomoyuki, Jovanovic, Nemanja, Lozi, Julien, Tamura, Motohide, Kuzuhara, Masayuki, Schlieder, Joshua E., Brandt, Timothy D., Kuhn, Jonas, Serabyn, Eugene, Singh, Garima, Janson, Markus, Carson, Joseph, Groff, Tyler, Kasdin, N. Jeremy, McElwain, Michael W., Grady, Carol, Uyama, Taichi, Akiyama, Eiji, and and others. Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L15.
Currie, Thayne, Guyon, Olivier, Kudo, Tomoyuki, Jovanovic, Nemanja, Lozi, Julien, Tamura, Motohide, Kuzuhara, Masayuki, Schlieder, Joshua E., Brandt, Timothy D., Kuhn, Jonas, Serabyn, Eugene, Singh, Garima, Janson, Markus, Carson, Joseph, Groff, Tyler, Kasdin, N. Jeremy, McElwain, Michael W., Grady, Carol, Uyama, Taichi, Akiyama, Eiji, & and others. Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L15.
Currie, Thayne, Guyon, Olivier, Kudo, Tomoyuki, Jovanovic, Nemanja, Lozi, Julien, Tamura, Motohide, Kuzuhara, Masayuki, Schlieder, Joshua E., Brandt, Timothy D., Kuhn, Jonas, Serabyn, Eugene, Singh, Garima, Janson, Markus, Carson, Joseph, Groff, Tyler, Kasdin, N. Jeremy, McElwain, Michael W., Grady, Carol, Uyama, Taichi, Akiyama, Eiji, and and others. Fri . "Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L15.
@article{osti_22654544,
title = {Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546},
author = {Currie, Thayne and Guyon, Olivier and Kudo, Tomoyuki and Jovanovic, Nemanja and Lozi, Julien and Tamura, Motohide and Kuzuhara, Masayuki and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Brandt, Timothy D. and Kuhn, Jonas and Serabyn, Eugene and Singh, Garima and Janson, Markus and Carson, Joseph and Groff, Tyler and Kasdin, N. Jeremy and McElwain, Michael W. and Grady, Carol and Uyama, Taichi and Akiyama, Eiji and and others},
abstractNote = {We present H -band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r ∼ 0.″3 to r ∼1″ (34–114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east–west direction (PA ∼ 75°), is inclined by i ∼ 70°–75°, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk’s eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t ∼ 1–250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3–10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga’s star formation history. SCExAO’s planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk’s visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet–disk interactions.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L15},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 836,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We present the first scattered-light image of the debris disk around HD 131835 in the H band using the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 131835 is a ∼15 Myr old A2IV star at a distance of ∼120 pc in the Sco-Cen OB association. We detect the disk only in polarized light and place an upper limit on the peak total intensity. No point sources resembling exoplanets were identified. Compared to its mid-infrared thermal emission,  in scattered light the disk shows similar orientation but different morphology. The scattered-light disk extends from ∼75 to ∼210 AU in the disk plane with roughly flatmore » surface density. Our Monte Carlo radiative transfer model can describe the observations with a model disk composed of a mixture of silicates and amorphous carbon. In addition to the obvious brightness asymmetry due to stronger forward scattering, we discover a weak brightness asymmetry along the major axis, with the northeast side being 1.3 times brighter than the southwest side at a 3σ level.« less
  • Here, we present the first scattered-light image of the debris disk around HD 131835 in the H band using the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 131835 is a ~15 Myr old A2IV star at a distance of ~120 pc in the Sco-Cen OB association. We detect the disk only in polarized light and place an upper limit on the peak total intensity. No point sources resembling exoplanets were identified. Compared to its mid-infrared thermal emission, in scattered light the disk shows similar orientation but different morphology. The scattered-light disk extends from ~75 to ~210 AU in the disk plane with roughlymore » flat surface density. Our Monte Carlo radiative transfer model can describe the observations with a model disk composed of a mixture of silicates and amorphous carbon. In addition to the obvious brightness asymmetry due to stronger forward scattering, we discover a weak brightness asymmetry along the major axis, with the northeast side being 1.3 times brighter than the southwest side at a 3σ level.« less
  • We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the ∼100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parameterized as (1) a single power law, (2) a single power law with a gap, and (3) a double power law. We find that models with a gap of radial widthmore » ∼8 AU at a distance of ∼80 AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at ∼70 AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models that consider the interaction of a planetary system with a planetesimal belt and spatial variation of the dust opacity across the disk. If future observations with higher angular resolution and sensitivity confirm the fully depleted gap structure discussed here, a planet with a mass of approximately a few Earth masses in a nearly circular orbit at ∼80 AU from the central star would be a possible explanation for the presence of the gap.« less
  • We present Keck/NIRC2 K{sub s} -band high-contrast coronagraphic imaging of the luminous debris disk around the nearby, young A star HD 32297 resolved at a projected separation of r = 0.''3-2.''5 ( Almost-Equal-To 35-280 AU). The disk is highly warped to the north and exhibits a complex, 'wavy' surface brightness (SB) profile interior to r Almost-Equal-To 110 AU, where the peaks/plateaus in the profiles are shifted between the NE and SW disk lobes. The SW side of the disk is 50%-100% brighter at r = 35-80 AU, and the location of its peak brightness roughly coincides with the disk's millimetermore » (mm) emission peak. Spectral energy distribution modeling suggests that HD 32297 has at least two dust populations that may originate from two separate belts, likely at different locations, possibly at distances coinciding with the SB peaks. A disk model for a single dust belt including a phase function with two components and a 5-10 AU pericenter offset explains the disk's warped structure and reproduces some of the SB profile's shape (e.g., the overall 'wavy' profile, the SB peak/plateau shifts) but more poorly reproduces the disk's brightness asymmetry and the profile at wider separations (r > 110 AU). Although there may be alternate explanations, agreement between the SW disk brightness peak and disk's peak mm emission is consistent with an overdensity of very small, sub-blowout-sized dust and large, 0.1-1 mm sized grains at Almost-Equal-To 45 AU tracing the same parent population of planetesimals. New near-IR and submillimeter observations may be able to clarify whether even more complex grain scattering properties or dynamical sculpting by an unseen planet are required to explain HD 32297's disk structure.« less
  • We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using the Gemini/Gemini Planet Imager in the infrared and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco–Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius ∼50 AU, and an outer extent >500 AU. The HST data show that the outer regions are highly asymmetric, resembling the “needle” morphology seenmore » for the HD 15115 debris disk. The planet candidate is oriented ∼21° away from the position angle of the primary’s debris disk, strongly suggesting non-coplanarity with the system. We hypothesize that HD 106906b could be dynamically involved in the perturbation of the primary’s disk, and investigate whether or not there is evidence for a circumplanetary dust disk or cloud that is either primordial or captured from the primary. We show that both the existing optical properties and near-infrared colors of HD 106906b are weakly consistent with this possibility, motivating future work to test for the observational signatures of dust surrounding the planet.« less