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Title: Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

Abstract

The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikelymore » source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain)
  2. Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
  3. Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654540
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 836; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABUNDANCE; BLACK HOLES; DETECTION; GALAXIES; GRAVITATIONAL LENSES; GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION; GRAVITATIONAL WAVES; MASS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; QUASARS; VISIBLE RADIATION; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Mediavilla, E., Jiménez-Vicente, J., Calderón-Infante, J., Muñoz, J. A., and Vives-Arias, H. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5DAB.
Mediavilla, E., Jiménez-Vicente, J., Calderón-Infante, J., Muñoz, J. A., & Vives-Arias, H. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5DAB.
Mediavilla, E., Jiménez-Vicente, J., Calderón-Infante, J., Muñoz, J. A., and Vives-Arias, H. Mon . "Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA5DAB.
@article{osti_22654540,
title = {Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing},
author = {Mediavilla, E. and Jiménez-Vicente, J. and Calderón-Infante, J. and Muñoz, J. A. and Vives-Arias, H.},
abstractNote = {The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/AA5DAB},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 836,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We use Planck data released in 2015 to constrain the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) in dark matter in two different reionization models (one is the instantaneous reionization and the other is the asymmetric reionization), and significantly improve the existing upper limits on the abundance of PBHs by around two orders of magnitude. These new limits imply that the event rates of mergers of PBH binaries (Gpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}) are less than 0.002 for M {sub pbh} = 30 M {sub ⊙}, 5 for M {sub pbh} = 10 M {sub ⊙} and 2000 for M {sub pbh}more » = 2 M {sub ⊙} at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and thus the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is very unlikely produced by the merger of a PBH binary.« less
  • The MACHO project has been monitoring about 10 million stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in the search for gravitational microlensing events caused by massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) in the halo of the Milky Way. In our standard analysis, we have searched this data set for well-sampled, long-duration microlensing light curves, detected several microlensing events consistent with MACHOs in the 0.1{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}{approx_lt}{ital m}{approx_lt}1.0{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} mass range, and set limits on the abundance of objects with masses 10{sup {minus}5}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}{approx_lt}{ital m}{approx_lt}10{sup {minus}1}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. In this paper, we present a different type of analysis involving themore » search for very short timescale brightenings of stars, which is used to set strong limits on the abundance of lower mass MACHOs. Our analysis of the first 2 years of data toward the LMC indicates that MACHOs with masses in the range 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}7}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}{lt}{ital m}{lt}5.2{times}10{sup {minus}4}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} cannot make up the entire mass of a standard spherical dark halo. Combining these results with those from the standard analysis, we find that the halo dark matter cannot be comprised of objects with masses 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}7}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}{lt}{ital m}{lt}8.1{times}10{sup {minus}2}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}« less
  • We perform a consistent calculation of primordial black hole (PBH) mass spectrum and second-order induced gravitational wave (GW) background produced from primordial scalar perturbations in radiation era of the early Universe. It is shown that the maximal amplitudes of the second-order GW spectrum that can be approached without conflicting with the PBH data do not depend significantly on the shape of primordial perturbation spectrum. The constraints on the GW background obtained in previous works are extended to a wider GW frequency range. We discuss the applicability of the currently available pulsar timing limits for obtaining the constraints on scalar powermore » spectrum and PBH abundance and show that they can be used for strongly constraining the PBH number density in the PBH mass range {approx}(0.03-10)M{sub {center_dot}}.« less
  • Here, we entertain the possibility that primordial black holes of mass ~ (10 26–10 29)g, with Schwarzschild radii of O(cm), constitute ~ 10% or more of cosmic dark matter, as allowed by various constraints. These black holes would typically originate from cosmological eras corresponding to temperatures O(10-100)GeV, and may be associated with first order phase transitions in the visible or hidden sectors. In case these small primordial black holes get captured in orbits around neutron stars or astrophysical black holes in our galactic neighborhood, gravitational waves from the resulting “David and Goliath (D&G)” binaries could be detectable at Advanced LIGOmore » or Advanced Virgo for hours or more, possibly over distances of O(10)Mpc encompassing the Local Supercluster of galaxies. The proposed Einstein Telescope would further expand the reach for these signals. A positive signal could be further corroborated by the discovery of new particles in the O(10-100)GeV mass range, and potentially also the detection of long wavelength gravitational waves originating from the first order phase transition era.« less