skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237

Abstract

We present the mid-infrared (MIR) light curves (LCs) of a tidal disruption event candidate in the center of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy F01004−2237 using archival WISE and NEOWISE data from 2010 to 2016. At the peak of the optical flare, F01004−2237 was IR quiescent. About three years later, its MIR fluxes have shown a steady increase, rising by 1.34 and 1.04 mag in 3.4 and 4.6 μ m up to the end of 2016. The host-subtracted MIR peak luminosity is 2–3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. We interpret the MIR LCs as an infrared echo, i.e., dust reprocessed emission of the optical flare. Fitting the MIR LCs using our dust model, we infer a dust torus of the size of a few parsecs at some inclined angle. The derived dust temperatures range from 590–850 K, and the warm dust mass is ∼7 M {sub ⊙}. Such a large mass implies that the dust cannot be newly formed. We also derive the UV luminosity of 4–11 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. The inferred total IR energy is 1–2 × 10{sup 52} erg, suggesting a large dust covering factor. Finally, our dust model suggests that the long tail ofmore » the optical flare could be due to dust scattering.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
  2. CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
  3. Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  4. IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654476
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 841; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; COVERINGS; DUSTS; EMISSION; GALAXIES; GALAXY NUCLEI; INTERMEDIATE INFRARED RADIATION; LUMINOSITY; MASS; SCATTERING; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Dou, Liming, Wang, Tinggui, Jiang, Ning, Yang, Chenwei, Peng, Bo, Yan, Lin, Cutri, Roc M., and Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu. Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7130.
Dou, Liming, Wang, Tinggui, Jiang, Ning, Yang, Chenwei, Peng, Bo, Yan, Lin, Cutri, Roc M., & Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu. Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7130.
Dou, Liming, Wang, Tinggui, Jiang, Ning, Yang, Chenwei, Peng, Bo, Yan, Lin, Cutri, Roc M., and Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu. 2017. "Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7130.
@article{osti_22654476,
title = {Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237},
author = {Dou, Liming and Wang, Tinggui and Jiang, Ning and Yang, Chenwei and Peng, Bo and Yan, Lin and Cutri, Roc M. and Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu},
abstractNote = {We present the mid-infrared (MIR) light curves (LCs) of a tidal disruption event candidate in the center of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy F01004−2237 using archival WISE and NEOWISE data from 2010 to 2016. At the peak of the optical flare, F01004−2237 was IR quiescent. About three years later, its MIR fluxes have shown a steady increase, rising by 1.34 and 1.04 mag in 3.4 and 4.6 μ m up to the end of 2016. The host-subtracted MIR peak luminosity is 2–3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. We interpret the MIR LCs as an infrared echo, i.e., dust reprocessed emission of the optical flare. Fitting the MIR LCs using our dust model, we infer a dust torus of the size of a few parsecs at some inclined angle. The derived dust temperatures range from 590–850 K, and the warm dust mass is ∼7 M {sub ⊙}. Such a large mass implies that the dust cannot be newly formed. We also derive the UV luminosity of 4–11 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. The inferred total IR energy is 1–2 × 10{sup 52} erg, suggesting a large dust covering factor. Finally, our dust model suggests that the long tail of the optical flare could be due to dust scattering.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/AA7130},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 841,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}
  • Images of the gravitational lens system candidate 2237+030 in three colors are obtained under seeings of 0.6-0.9 arcsec. The excellent seeing and the 0.2 arcsec per pixel scale permit the resolution of the system into four stellar components and the galaxy nuclear component in a cross pattern. The positions and intensities of the quasar-candidate components are derived using an iterative point-spread-function subtraction procedure. The largest separation of the components is 1.8 arcsec. Variations of g-i colors of up to 0.3 mag are seen among the quasar-candidate components. This can be interpreted as variable absorption through the galaxy. An estimate ofmore » the true luminosity ratios of the four components is made. Detailed morphological study of the galaxy shows that the galaxy is a well-developed barred spiral with an inner ring and a small bulge. Standard de Vaucouleurs and exponential disk laws are fitted to the brightness profile. 21 references.« less
  • A critical analysis of the discovery of Huchra et al. (1985) of a high redshift QSO (z = 1.695) in the nucleus of the galaxy 2237 + 0305 is given. Posteriori calculations of the possibility that a QSO of 17 mag lies within 0.3 arcsec of the center of the galaxy in the CFA redshift survey are presented. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to the conclusion of Huchra et al., it is very unlikely that the QSO and 2237 + 0305 are not physically associated.
  • We report the results from a comprehensive study of 74 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and 34 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars within z {approx} 0.3 observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The contribution of nuclear activity to the bolometric luminosity in these systems is quantified using six independent methods that span a range in wavelength and give consistent results within {approx}{+-}10%-15% on average. This agreement suggests that deeply buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invisible to Spitzer IRS but bright in the far-infrared are not common in this sample. The average derived AGN contribution in ULIRGs is {approx}35%-40%, ranging from {approx}15%-35% amongmore » 'cool' (f {sub 25}/f {sub 60} {<=} 0.2) optically classified H II-like and LINER ULIRGs to {approx}50 and {approx}75% among warm Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 ULIRGs, respectively. This number exceeds {approx}80% in PG QSOs. ULIRGs fall in one of three distinct AGN classes: (1) objects with small extinctions and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths are highly starburst-dominated; (2) systems with large extinctions and modest PAH equivalent widths have larger AGN contributions, but still tend to be starburst-dominated; and (3) ULIRGs with both small extinctions and small PAH equivalent widths host AGN that are at least as powerful as the starbursts. The AGN contributions in class 2 ULIRGs are more uncertain than in the other objects, and we cannot formally rule out the possibility that these objects represent a physically distinct type of ULIRGs. A morphological trend is seen along the sequence (1)-(2)-(3), in general agreement with the standard ULIRG-QSO evolution scenario and suggestive of a broad peak in extinction during the intermediate stages of merger evolution. However, the scatter in this sequence, including the presence of a significant number of AGN-dominated systems prior to coalescence and starburst-dominated but fully merged systems, implies that black hole accretion, in addition to depending on the merger phase, also has a strong chaotic/random component, as in local AGNs.« less
  • This paper reports on the discovery of a compact, unresolved infrared nucleus, coincident with the radio core, in the prototypical powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A (3C 405). The infrared colors and magnitudes of the nucleus can be explained as a highly reddened extension of the radio continuum. The implied restframe extinction is A(V) equal to about 50 + or {minus} 30 magnitudes. The extinction-corrected luminosity of the object is in the quasar range. This discovery gives some support to the unification models for quasars and powerful radio galaxies. 35 refs.
  • We report the first results from the Z -FOURGE survey: the discovery of a candidate galaxy cluster at z = 2.2 consisting of two compact overdensities with red galaxies detected at {approx}> 20{sigma} above the mean surface density. The discovery was made possible by a new deep (K{sub s} {approx}< 24.8 AB 5{sigma}) Magellan/FOURSTAR near-IR imaging survey with five custom medium-bandwidth filters. The filters pinpoint the location of the Balmer/4000 A break in evolved stellar populations at 1.5 < z < 3.5, yielding significantly more accurate photometric redshifts than possible with broadband imaging alone. The overdensities are within 1' ofmore » each other in the COSMOS field and appear to be embedded in a larger structure that contains at least one additional overdensity ({approx}10{sigma}). Considering the global properties of the overdensities, the z = 2.2 system appears to be the most distant example of a galaxy cluster with a population of red galaxies. A comparison to a large {Lambda}CDM simulation suggests that the system may consist of merging subclusters, with properties in between those of z > 2 protoclusters with more diffuse distributions of blue galaxies and the lower-redshift galaxy clusters with prominent red sequences. The structure is completely absent in public optical catalogs in COSMOS and only weakly visible in a shallower near-IR survey. The discovery showcases the potential of deep near-IR surveys with medium-band filters to advance the understanding of environment and galaxy evolution at z > 1.5.« less