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Title: GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP

Abstract

The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, themore » total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]; ; ; ;  [3]; ;  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ;  [9];  [10]
  1. Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
  3. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
  4. LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  5. Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  6. Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
  7. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  8. Leonard E. Parker Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
  9. LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 185 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
  10. Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654471
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 829; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ALGORITHMS; BLACK HOLES; DISTRIBUTION; GALAXIES; GRAVITATIONAL WAVES; INTERFEROMETERS; LUMINOSITY; MASS; NEUTRON STARS; RED SHIFT; SENSITIVITY; SKY; TELESCOPES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; UNIVERSE; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Singer, Leo P., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gehrels, Neil, Cannizzo, John, Chen, Hsin-Yu, Holz, Daniel E., Farr, Ben, Farr, Will M., Veitch, John, Berry, Christopher P. L., Mandel, Ilya, Price, Larry R., Raymond, Vivien, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nissanke, Samaya, Coughlin, Michael, Urban, Alex L., Vitale, Salvatore, Mohapatra, Satya, and Graff, Philip. GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L15.
Singer, Leo P., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gehrels, Neil, Cannizzo, John, Chen, Hsin-Yu, Holz, Daniel E., Farr, Ben, Farr, Will M., Veitch, John, Berry, Christopher P. L., Mandel, Ilya, Price, Larry R., Raymond, Vivien, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nissanke, Samaya, Coughlin, Michael, Urban, Alex L., Vitale, Salvatore, Mohapatra, Satya, & Graff, Philip. GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L15.
Singer, Leo P., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gehrels, Neil, Cannizzo, John, Chen, Hsin-Yu, Holz, Daniel E., Farr, Ben, Farr, Will M., Veitch, John, Berry, Christopher P. L., Mandel, Ilya, Price, Larry R., Raymond, Vivien, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nissanke, Samaya, Coughlin, Michael, Urban, Alex L., Vitale, Salvatore, Mohapatra, Satya, and Graff, Philip. Tue . "GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L15.
@article{osti_22654471,
title = {GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP},
author = {Singer, Leo P. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Gehrels, Neil and Cannizzo, John and Chen, Hsin-Yu and Holz, Daniel E. and Farr, Ben and Farr, Will M. and Veitch, John and Berry, Christopher P. L. and Mandel, Ilya and Price, Larry R. and Raymond, Vivien and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Nissanke, Samaya and Coughlin, Michael and Urban, Alex L. and Vitale, Salvatore and Mohapatra, Satya and Graff, Philip},
abstractNote = {The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L15},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 829,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}