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Title: J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB

Abstract

We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 {sup 14}N-rich AB ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s -process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s -process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process ( i -process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N excesses but no s -process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)
  2. Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654430
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 844; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CARBON STARS; ISOTOPE RATIO; MOLYBDENUM ISOTOPES; SILICON CARBIDES; SPACE; STARS

Citation Formats

Liu, Nan, Nittler, Larry R., Alexander, Conel M. O’D., Wang, Jianhua, Stephan, Thomas, Boehnke, Patrick, Davis, Andrew M., Trappitsch, Reto, and Pellin, Michael J., E-mail: nliu@carnegiescience.edu. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7D4C.
Liu, Nan, Nittler, Larry R., Alexander, Conel M. O’D., Wang, Jianhua, Stephan, Thomas, Boehnke, Patrick, Davis, Andrew M., Trappitsch, Reto, & Pellin, Michael J., E-mail: nliu@carnegiescience.edu. J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7D4C.
Liu, Nan, Nittler, Larry R., Alexander, Conel M. O’D., Wang, Jianhua, Stephan, Thomas, Boehnke, Patrick, Davis, Andrew M., Trappitsch, Reto, and Pellin, Michael J., E-mail: nliu@carnegiescience.edu. 2017. "J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA7D4C.
@article{osti_22654430,
title = {J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB},
author = {Liu, Nan and Nittler, Larry R. and Alexander, Conel M. O’D. and Wang, Jianhua and Stephan, Thomas and Boehnke, Patrick and Davis, Andrew M. and Trappitsch, Reto and Pellin, Michael J., E-mail: nliu@carnegiescience.edu},
abstractNote = {We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 {sup 14}N-rich AB ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s -process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s -process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process ( i -process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N excesses but no s -process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/AA7D4C},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 844,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}
  • Here, we report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 14N-rich AB ( 14N/ 15N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takesmore » place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show 13C and 14N excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. And because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less
  • We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 N-14-rich AB (N-14/N-15 > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takes place, as theirmore » stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R-and J-type carbon stars show C-13 and N-14 excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%-15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.« less
  • We compared carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C and low-density (LD) graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, we present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing 12C/ 13C and 14N/ 15N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. All of the explosion energies and Hmore » concentrations are considered. If the supernova shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of 13C and 15N. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 26Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic 22Ne from the decay of 22Na in the He shell might solve the puzzle of the Ne-E(L) component in LD graphite grains. This scenario is attractive for the SiC grains of type AB with 14N/ 15N ratios lower than solar, and provides an alternative solution for SiC grains originally classified as nova grains. Finally, this process may contribute to the production of 14N and 15N in the Galaxy, helping to produce the 14N/ 15N ratio in the solar system.« less
  • About a year after core-collapse supernova, dust starts to condense in the ejecta. In meteorites, a fraction of C-rich presolar grains (e.g., silicon carbide (SiC) grains of Type-X and low density graphites) are identified as relics of these events, according to the anomalous isotopic abundances. Several features of these abundances remain unexplained and challenge the understanding of core-collapse supernovae explosions and nucleosynthesis. We show, for the first time, that most of the measured C-rich grain abundances can be accounted for in the C-rich material from explosive He burning in core-collapse supernovae with high shock velocities and consequent high temperatures. Themore » inefficiency of the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O reaction relative to the rest of the {alpha}-capture chain at T > 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K causes the deepest He-shell material to be carbon-rich and silicon-rich, and depleted in oxygen. The isotopic ratio predictions in part of this material, defined here as the C/Si zone, are in agreement with the grain data. The high-temperature explosive conditions that our models reach at the bottom of the He shell can also be representative of the nucleosynthesis in hypernovae or in the high-temperature tail of a distribution of conditions in asymmetric supernovae. Finally, our predictions are consistent with the observation of large {sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca observed in the grains. This is due to the production of {sup 44}Ti together with {sup 40}Ca in the C/Si zone and/or to the strong depletion of {sup 40}Ca by neutron captures.« less
  • Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C and low-density (LD) graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations aremore » considered. If the supernova shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N. The short-lived radionuclides {sup 22}Na and {sup 26}Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic {sup 22}Ne from the decay of {sup 22}Na in the He shell might solve the puzzle of the Ne-E(L) component in LD graphite grains. This scenario is attractive for the SiC grains of type AB with {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios lower than solar, and provides an alternative solution for SiC grains originally classified as nova grains. Finally, this process may contribute to the production of {sup 14}N and {sup 15}N in the Galaxy, helping to produce the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in the solar system.« less