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Title: INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

Abstract

We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory ( INTEGRAL ) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi -GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi -GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about 2 s after the end of the GW event. We measure a fluence of (1.4 ± 0.4 ± 0.6) × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} (75–2000 keV), where, respectively, the statistical error is given at the 1σ confidence level, and the systematic error corresponds to the uncertainty in the spectral model and instrument response. We also report on the pointed follow-up observations carried out by INTEGRAL , starting 19.5 hr after the event, and lasting for 5.4 days. We provide a stringent upper limit on any electromagnetic signal in a very broad energy range, from 3 keV to 8 MeV, constraining the soft gamma-ray afterglow flux to <7.1 ×more » 10{sup −11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (80–300 keV). Exploiting the unique capabilities of INTEGRAL , we constrained the gamma-ray line emission from radioactive decays that are expected to be the principal source of the energy behind a kilonova event following a BNS coalescence. Finally, we put a stringent upper limit on any delayed bursting activity, for example, from a newly formed magnetar.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]; ;  [4]; ;  [5];  [6]; ;  [7];  [8]; ;  [9];  [10];  [11] more »; « less
  1. ISDC, Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Écogia, 16 CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)
  2. European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)
  3. INAF-Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133-Rome (Italy)
  4. DTU Space, National Space Institute Elektrovej, Building 327 DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)
  5. Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
  6. Centro de Astrobiología (CAB-CSIC/INTA, ESAC Campus), Camino bajo del Castillo S/N, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)
  7. Space Science Group, School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)
  8. IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, 9 Av. Roche, F-31028 Toulouse (France)
  9. APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domont et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
  10. Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)
  11. INAF, IASF-Milano, via E.Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654364
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 848; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AFTERGLOW; ASTROPHYSICS; COALESCENCE; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; DETECTION; EMISSION; GAMMA RADIATION; GRAVITATIONAL WAVES; KEV RANGE; MEV RANGE; NEUTRON STARS; NOISE; NUCLEAR DECAY; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO

Citation Formats

Savchenko, V., Ferrigno, C., Bozzo, E., Courvoisier, T. J.-L., Kuulkers, E., Bazzano, A., Natalucci, L., Rodi, J., Brandt, S., Chenevez, J., Diehl, R., Von Kienlin, A., Domingo, A., Hanlon, L., Martin-Carrillo, A., Jourdain, E., Laurent, P., Lebrun, F., Lutovinov, A., Mereghetti, S., and and others. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA8F94.
Savchenko, V., Ferrigno, C., Bozzo, E., Courvoisier, T. J.-L., Kuulkers, E., Bazzano, A., Natalucci, L., Rodi, J., Brandt, S., Chenevez, J., Diehl, R., Von Kienlin, A., Domingo, A., Hanlon, L., Martin-Carrillo, A., Jourdain, E., Laurent, P., Lebrun, F., Lutovinov, A., Mereghetti, S., & and others. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA8F94.
Savchenko, V., Ferrigno, C., Bozzo, E., Courvoisier, T. J.-L., Kuulkers, E., Bazzano, A., Natalucci, L., Rodi, J., Brandt, S., Chenevez, J., Diehl, R., Von Kienlin, A., Domingo, A., Hanlon, L., Martin-Carrillo, A., Jourdain, E., Laurent, P., Lebrun, F., Lutovinov, A., Mereghetti, S., and and others. 2017. "INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/AA8F94.
@article{osti_22654364,
title = {INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817},
author = {Savchenko, V. and Ferrigno, C. and Bozzo, E. and Courvoisier, T. J.-L. and Kuulkers, E. and Bazzano, A. and Natalucci, L. and Rodi, J. and Brandt, S. and Chenevez, J. and Diehl, R. and Von Kienlin, A. and Domingo, A. and Hanlon, L. and Martin-Carrillo, A. and Jourdain, E. and Laurent, P. and Lebrun, F. and Lutovinov, A. and Mereghetti, S. and and others},
abstractNote = {We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory ( INTEGRAL ) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi -GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi -GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about 2 s after the end of the GW event. We measure a fluence of (1.4 ± 0.4 ± 0.6) × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} (75–2000 keV), where, respectively, the statistical error is given at the 1σ confidence level, and the systematic error corresponds to the uncertainty in the spectral model and instrument response. We also report on the pointed follow-up observations carried out by INTEGRAL , starting 19.5 hr after the event, and lasting for 5.4 days. We provide a stringent upper limit on any electromagnetic signal in a very broad energy range, from 3 keV to 8 MeV, constraining the soft gamma-ray afterglow flux to <7.1 × 10{sup −11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (80–300 keV). Exploiting the unique capabilities of INTEGRAL , we constrained the gamma-ray line emission from radioactive decays that are expected to be the principal source of the energy behind a kilonova event following a BNS coalescence. Finally, we put a stringent upper limit on any delayed bursting activity, for example, from a newly formed magnetar.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/AA8F94},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 848,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}
  • We investigate current and future prospects for coincident detection of high-energy neutrinos and gravitational waves (GWs). Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are believed to originate from mergers of compact star binaries involving neutron stars. We estimate high-energy neutrino fluences from prompt emission, extended emission (EE), X-ray flares, and plateau emission, and we show that neutrino signals associated with the EE are the most promising. Assuming that the cosmic-ray loading factor is ∼10 and the Lorentz factor distribution is lognormal, we calculate the probability of neutrino detection from EE by current and future neutrino detectors, and we find that the quasi-simultaneous detectionmore » of high-energy neutrinos, gamma-rays, and GWs is possible with future instruments or even with current instruments for nearby SGRBs having EE. We also discuss stacking analyses that will also be useful with future experiments such as IceCube-Gen2.« less
  • On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance ismore » $$5.0\times {10}^{-8}$$. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of $$(+1.74\pm 0.05)\,{\rm{s}}$$ between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between $$-3\times {10}^{-15}$$ and $$+7\times {10}^{-16}$$ times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1–1.4 per year during the 2018–2019 observing run and 0.3–1.7 per year at design sensitivity.« less
  • We report initial results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 degmore » $^2$ area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median $$5\sigma$$ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i=22.5 and z=21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg$$^{2}$$, corresponding to 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% of the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i= 21.5,21.1,20.1 for object colors (i-z)=1,0,-1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.« less
  • We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg 2 area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4–5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the imagesmore » through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg 2, corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4–5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i – z) = 1, 0, –1, respectively. Lastly, our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.« less