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Title: DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn

Abstract

Supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn in NGC 5806 was the first Type Ib SN to have been tentatively associated with a progenitor in pre-explosion images. We performed deep ultraviolet (UV) and optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of the SN site ∼740 days after explosion. We detect an object in the optical bands that is fainter than the pre-explosion object. This dimming is likely not produced by dust absorption in the ejecta; thus, our finding confirms the connection of the progenitor candidate with the SN. The object in our data is likely dominated by the fading SN, implying that the pre-SN flux is mostly due to the progenitor. We compare our revised pre-SN photometry with previously proposed models. Although binary progenitors are favored, models need to be refined. In particular, to comply with our deep UV detection limit, any companion star must be less luminous than a late-O star or substantially obscured by newly formed dust. A definitive progenitor characterization will require further observations to disentangle the contribution of a much fainter SN and its environment.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]; ; ;  [4]; ; ;  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]
  1. Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP), CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA La Plata (Argentina)
  2. IPAC/Caltech, Mailcode 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  3. Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile)
  4. Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
  5. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
  6. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
  7. INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)
  8. Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)
  9. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654280
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 825; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DETECTION; DUSTS; EXPLOSIONS; GALAXIES; PHOTOMETRY; SPACE; STAR EVOLUTION; SUPERNOVAE; TELESCOPES; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Citation Formats

Folatelli, Gastón, Bersten, Melina C., Van Dyk, Schuyler D., Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo, Pignata, Giuliano, Hamuy, Mario, Maeda, Keiichi, Nomoto, Ken’ichi, Quimby, Robert M., Zheng, WeiKang, Filippenko, Alexei V., Clubb, Kelsey I., Smith, Nathan, Elias-Rosa, Nancy, Foley, Ryan J., and Miller, Adam A., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp. DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/2/L22.
Folatelli, Gastón, Bersten, Melina C., Van Dyk, Schuyler D., Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo, Pignata, Giuliano, Hamuy, Mario, Maeda, Keiichi, Nomoto, Ken’ichi, Quimby, Robert M., Zheng, WeiKang, Filippenko, Alexei V., Clubb, Kelsey I., Smith, Nathan, Elias-Rosa, Nancy, Foley, Ryan J., & Miller, Adam A., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp. DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/2/L22.
Folatelli, Gastón, Bersten, Melina C., Van Dyk, Schuyler D., Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo, Pignata, Giuliano, Hamuy, Mario, Maeda, Keiichi, Nomoto, Ken’ichi, Quimby, Robert M., Zheng, WeiKang, Filippenko, Alexei V., Clubb, Kelsey I., Smith, Nathan, Elias-Rosa, Nancy, Foley, Ryan J., and Miller, Adam A., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp. 2016. "DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/2/L22.
@article{osti_22654280,
title = {DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn},
author = {Folatelli, Gastón and Bersten, Melina C. and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo and Pignata, Giuliano and Hamuy, Mario and Maeda, Keiichi and Nomoto, Ken’ichi and Quimby, Robert M. and Zheng, WeiKang and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Clubb, Kelsey I. and Smith, Nathan and Elias-Rosa, Nancy and Foley, Ryan J. and Miller, Adam A., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp},
abstractNote = {Supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn in NGC 5806 was the first Type Ib SN to have been tentatively associated with a progenitor in pre-explosion images. We performed deep ultraviolet (UV) and optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of the SN site ∼740 days after explosion. We detect an object in the optical bands that is fainter than the pre-explosion object. This dimming is likely not produced by dust absorption in the ejecta; thus, our finding confirms the connection of the progenitor candidate with the SN. The object in our data is likely dominated by the fading SN, implying that the pre-SN flux is mostly due to the progenitor. We compare our revised pre-SN photometry with previously proposed models. Although binary progenitors are favored, models need to be refined. In particular, to comply with our deep UV detection limit, any companion star must be less luminous than a late-O star or substantially obscured by newly formed dust. A definitive progenitor characterization will require further observations to disentangle the contribution of a much fainter SN and its environment.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/825/2/L22},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 825,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory reports our discovery of a young supernova, iPTF13bvn, in the nearby galaxy, NGC 5806 (22.5 Mpc). Our spectral sequence in the optical and infrared suggests a Type Ib classification. We identify a blue progenitor candidate in deep pre-explosion imaging within a 2σ error circle of 80 mas (8.7 pc). The candidate has an M{sub B} luminosity of –5.52 ± 0.39 mag and a B – I color of 0.25 ± 0.25 mag. If confirmed by future observations, this would be the first direct detection for a progenitor of a Type Ib. Fitting a power lawmore » to the early light curve, we find an extrapolated explosion date around 0.6 days before our first detection. We see no evidence of shock cooling. The pre-explosion detection limits constrain the radius of the progenitor to be smaller than a few solar radii. iPTF13bvn is also detected in centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Fitting a synchrotron self-absorption model to our radio data, we find a mass-loading parameter of 1.3×10{sup 12} g cm{sup –1}. Assuming a wind velocity of 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}, we derive a progenitor mass-loss rate of 3 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Our observations, taken as a whole, are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor of the supernova iPTF13bvn.« less
  • The recent detection in archival Hubble Space Telescope images of an object at the location of supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn may represent the first direct evidence of the progenitor of a Type Ib SN. The object's photometry was found to be compatible with a Wolf-Rayet pre-SN star mass of ≈11 M {sub ☉}. However, based on hydrodynamical models, we show that the progenitor had a pre-SN mass of ≈3.5 M {sub ☉} and that it could not be larger than ≈8 M {sub ☉}. We propose an interacting binary system as the SN progenitor and perform evolutionary calculations that are ablemore » to self-consistently explain the light curve shape, the absence of hydrogen, and the pre-SN photometry. We further discuss the range of allowed binary systems and predict that the remaining companion is a luminous O-type star of significantly lower flux in the optical than the pre-SN object. A future detection of such a star may be possible and would provide the first robust identification of a progenitor system for a Type Ib SN.« less
  • We present observations of supernova (SN) 2008ge, which is spectroscopically similar to the peculiar SN 2002cx, and its pre-explosion site indicating that its progenitor was probably a white dwarf. NGC 1527, the host galaxy of SN 2008ge, is an S0 galaxy with no evidence of star formation or massive stars. Astrometrically matching late-time imaging of SN 2008ge to pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we constrain the luminosity of the progenitor star. Since SN 2008ge has no indication of hydrogen or helium in its spectrum, its progenitor must have lost its outer layers before exploding, meaning that it is a whitemore » dwarf, a Wolf-Rayet star, or a lower-mass star in a binary system. Observations of the host galaxy show no signs of individual massive stars, star clusters, or H II regions at the SN position or anywhere else, making a Wolf-Rayet progenitor unlikely. Late-time spectroscopy of SN 2008ge shows strong [Fe II] lines with large velocity widths compared to other members of this class at similar epochs. These previously unseen features indicate that a significant amount of the SN ejecta is Fe (presumably the result of the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni generated in the SN), further supporting a thermonuclear explosion. Placing the observations of SN 2008ge in the context of observations of other objects in the same class of SNe, we suggest that the progenitor was most likely a white dwarf.« less
  • Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 {mu}m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 {mu}m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellarmore » outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s{sup -1}) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are {approx}80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s{sup -1}) into moderate density material (n{sub 0} {approx} 50-250 cm{sup -3}) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.« less