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Title: A DARK ENERGY CAMERA SEARCH FOR MISSING SUPERGIANTS IN THE LMC AFTER THE ADVANCED LIGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914

Abstract

The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg{sup 2} of the localization area, including 38 deg{sup 2} on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it ismore » unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3]; ; ; ; ;  [4];  [5]; ;  [6] more »; « less
  1. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)
  4. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
  5. Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, 251B Clippinger Lab, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654193
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 823; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8205
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; GRAVITATIONAL WAVES; IMAGES; INTERFEROMETERS; MAGELLANIC CLOUDS; MASS; NEUTRINOS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; SUPERGIANT STARS; SUPERNOVAE; WAVE FORMS; WOLF-RAYET STARS

Citation Formats

Annis, J., Soares-Santos, M., Diehl, H. T., Drlica-Wagner, A., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., Herner, K., Berger, E., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Drout, M. R., Brout, D., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Farr, B., Holz, D., Kessler, R., Chornock, R., Foley, R. J., Gruendl, R. A., Collaboration: DES Collaboration, and others, and. A DARK ENERGY CAMERA SEARCH FOR MISSING SUPERGIANTS IN THE LMC AFTER THE ADVANCED LIGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L34.
Annis, J., Soares-Santos, M., Diehl, H. T., Drlica-Wagner, A., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., Herner, K., Berger, E., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Drout, M. R., Brout, D., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Farr, B., Holz, D., Kessler, R., Chornock, R., Foley, R. J., Gruendl, R. A., Collaboration: DES Collaboration, & others, and. A DARK ENERGY CAMERA SEARCH FOR MISSING SUPERGIANTS IN THE LMC AFTER THE ADVANCED LIGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L34.
Annis, J., Soares-Santos, M., Diehl, H. T., Drlica-Wagner, A., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., Herner, K., Berger, E., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Drout, M. R., Brout, D., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Farr, B., Holz, D., Kessler, R., Chornock, R., Foley, R. J., Gruendl, R. A., Collaboration: DES Collaboration, and others, and. Wed . "A DARK ENERGY CAMERA SEARCH FOR MISSING SUPERGIANTS IN THE LMC AFTER THE ADVANCED LIGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L34.
@article{osti_22654193,
title = {A DARK ENERGY CAMERA SEARCH FOR MISSING SUPERGIANTS IN THE LMC AFTER THE ADVANCED LIGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914},
author = {Annis, J. and Soares-Santos, M. and Diehl, H. T. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Finley, D. A. and Flaugher, B. and Frieman, J. and Herner, K. and Berger, E. and Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Drout, M. R. and Brout, D. and Chen, H. and Doctor, Z. and Farr, B. and Holz, D. and Kessler, R. and Chornock, R. and Foley, R. J. and Gruendl, R. A. and Collaboration: DES Collaboration and others, and},
abstractNote = {The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg{sup 2} of the localization area, including 38 deg{sup 2} on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/823/2/L34},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
issn = {2041-8205},
number = 2,
volume = 823,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}