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Title: WE-AB-209-01: A Monte Carlo-Based Method to Include Random Errors in Robust Optimization

Abstract

Purpose: To develop an efficient method to implement random set-up errors and organ motion in robust optimization for proton therapy treatment planning. Methods: The plans were created with an in-house robust optimizer, coupled with a super-fast Monte Carlo (MC) engine (less than 1 minute for final dose). MC simulates random errors by shifting randomly the starting point of each particle, according to their probability distribution. Such strategy assumes a sufficient number of treatment fractions. Two strategies are presented: 1) Full robust optimization with beamlets that already include the effect of random errors and 2) Mixed robust optimization, where the nominal beamlets are involved but a correction term C modifies the prescription. Starting from C=0, the method alternates optimization of the spot weights with the nominal beamlets and updates of C, with C=Drandom-Dnominal and where Drandom results from a regular MC computation (without pre-computed beamlets) that simulates random errors. Updates of C can be triggered as often as necessary by running the MC engine with the last corrected values for the spot weights as input. The method was applied to lung and prostate cases. For both patients the range error was set to 3%, systematic setup error to 5mm and standardmore » deviation for random errors to 5 mm. Comparison between full robust optimization and the mixed strategy (with 3 updates of C) is presented. Results: Target coverage was far below the clinical constraints (D{sub 95} > 95% of the prescribed dose) for plans where random errors were not simulated, especially for lung case. However, by using the proposed strategies the plans achieved a target coverage above clinical constraints. Conclusion: Full robust optimization gives better results than the mixed strategy, but the latter can be useful in cases where a MC engine is not available or too computationally intensive for beamlets calculation.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Bruxelles (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654131
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ERRORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; PLANNING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; RANDOMNESS; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Barragan Montero, A, Souris, K, Lee, J, and Sterpin, E. WE-AB-209-01: A Monte Carlo-Based Method to Include Random Errors in Robust Optimization. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957770.
Barragan Montero, A, Souris, K, Lee, J, & Sterpin, E. WE-AB-209-01: A Monte Carlo-Based Method to Include Random Errors in Robust Optimization. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957770.
Barragan Montero, A, Souris, K, Lee, J, and Sterpin, E. Wed . "WE-AB-209-01: A Monte Carlo-Based Method to Include Random Errors in Robust Optimization". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957770.
@article{osti_22654131,
title = {WE-AB-209-01: A Monte Carlo-Based Method to Include Random Errors in Robust Optimization},
author = {Barragan Montero, A and Souris, K and Lee, J and Sterpin, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop an efficient method to implement random set-up errors and organ motion in robust optimization for proton therapy treatment planning. Methods: The plans were created with an in-house robust optimizer, coupled with a super-fast Monte Carlo (MC) engine (less than 1 minute for final dose). MC simulates random errors by shifting randomly the starting point of each particle, according to their probability distribution. Such strategy assumes a sufficient number of treatment fractions. Two strategies are presented: 1) Full robust optimization with beamlets that already include the effect of random errors and 2) Mixed robust optimization, where the nominal beamlets are involved but a correction term C modifies the prescription. Starting from C=0, the method alternates optimization of the spot weights with the nominal beamlets and updates of C, with C=Drandom-Dnominal and where Drandom results from a regular MC computation (without pre-computed beamlets) that simulates random errors. Updates of C can be triggered as often as necessary by running the MC engine with the last corrected values for the spot weights as input. The method was applied to lung and prostate cases. For both patients the range error was set to 3%, systematic setup error to 5mm and standard deviation for random errors to 5 mm. Comparison between full robust optimization and the mixed strategy (with 3 updates of C) is presented. Results: Target coverage was far below the clinical constraints (D{sub 95} > 95% of the prescribed dose) for plans where random errors were not simulated, especially for lung case. However, by using the proposed strategies the plans achieved a target coverage above clinical constraints. Conclusion: Full robust optimization gives better results than the mixed strategy, but the latter can be useful in cases where a MC engine is not available or too computationally intensive for beamlets calculation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957770},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To develop a nuclear medicine dosimetry module for the GPU-based Monte Carlo code ARCHER. Methods: We have developed a nuclear medicine dosimetry module for the fast Monte Carlo code ARCHER. The coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo transport kernel included in ARCHER is built upon the Dose Planning Method code (DPM). The developed module manages the radioactive decay simulation by consecutively tracking several types of radiation on a per disintegration basis using the statistical sampling method. Optimization techniques such as persistent threads and prefetching are studied and implemented. The developed module is verified against the VIDA code, which is based onmore » Geant4 toolkit and has previously been verified against OLINDA/EXM. A voxelized geometry is used in the preliminary test: a sphere made of ICRP soft tissue is surrounded by a box filled with water. Uniform activity distribution of I-131 is assumed in the sphere. Results: The self-absorption dose factors (mGy/MBqs) of the sphere with varying diameters are calculated by ARCHER and VIDA respectively. ARCHER’s result is in agreement with VIDA’s that are obtained from a previous publication. VIDA takes hours of CPU time to finish the computation, while it takes ARCHER 4.31 seconds for the 12.4-cm uniform activity sphere case. For a fairer CPU-GPU comparison, more effort will be made to eliminate the algorithmic differences. Conclusion: The coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code ARCHER has been extended to radioactive decay simulation for nuclear medicine dosimetry. The developed code exhibits good performance in our preliminary test. The GPU-based Monte Carlo code is developed with grant support from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering through an R01 grant (R01EB015478)« less
  • Purpose: To formulate objective functions of a multicriteria fluence map optimization model that correlate well with plan quality metrics, and to solve this multicriteria model by convex approximation. Methods: In this study, objectives of a multicriteria model are formulated to explicitly either minimize or maximize a dose-at-volume measure. Given the widespread agreement that dose-at-volume levels play important roles in plan quality assessment, these objectives correlate well with plan quality metrics. This is in contrast to the conventional objectives, which are to maximize clinical goal achievement by relating to deviations from given dose-at-volume thresholds: while balancing the new objectives means explicitlymore » balancing dose-at-volume levels, balancing the conventional objectives effectively means balancing deviations. Constituted by the inherently non-convex dose-at-volume measure, the new objectives are approximated by the convex mean-tail-dose measure (CVaR measure), yielding a convex approximation of the multicriteria model. Results: Advantages of using the convex approximation are investigated through juxtaposition with the conventional objectives in a computational study of two patient cases. Clinical goals of each case respectively point out three ROI dose-at-volume measures to be considered for plan quality assessment. This is translated in the convex approximation into minimizing three mean-tail-dose measures. Evaluations of the three ROI dose-at-volume measures on Pareto optimal plans are used to represent plan quality of the Pareto sets. Besides providing increased accuracy in terms of feasibility of solutions, the convex approximation generates Pareto sets with overall improved plan quality. In one case, the Pareto set generated by the convex approximation entirely dominates that generated with the conventional objectives. Conclusion: The initial computational study indicates that the convex approximation outperforms the conventional objectives in aspects of accuracy and plan quality.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a fast optimization method for station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) and show that SPORT is capable of improving VMAT in both plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: The angular space from 0° to 360° was divided into 180 station points (SPs). A candidate aperture was assigned to each of the SPs based on the calculation results using a column generation algorithm. The weights of the apertures were then obtained by optimizing the objective function using a state-of-the-art GPU based Proximal Operator Graph Solver (POGS) within seconds. Apertures with zero or low weight were thrown out. Tomore » avoid being trapped in a local minimum, a stochastic gradient descent method was employed which also greatly increased the convergence rate of the objective function. The above procedure repeated until the plan could not be improved any further. A weighting factor associated with the total plan MU also indirectly controlled the complexities of aperture shapes. The number of apertures for VMAT and SPORT was confined to 180. The SPORT allowed the coexistence of multiple apertures in a single SP. The optimization technique was assessed by using three clinical cases (prostate, H&N and brain). Results: Marked dosimetric quality improvement was demonstrated in the SPORT plans for all three studied cases. Prostate case: the volume of the 50% prescription dose was decreased by 22% for the rectum. H&N case: SPORT improved the mean dose for the left and right parotids by 15% each. Brain case: the doses to the eyes, chiasm and inner ears were all improved. SPORT shortened the treatment time by ∼1 min for the prostate case, ∼0.5 min for brain case, and ∼0.2 min for the H&N case. Conclusion: The superior dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency presented here indicates that SPORT is an intriguing alternative treatment modality.« less
  • Purpose: To introduce quasi-constrained Multi-Criteria Optimization (qcMCO) for unsupervised radiation therapy optimization which generates alternative patient-specific plans emphasizing dosimetric tradeoffs and conformance to clinical constraints for multiple delivery techniques. Methods: For N Organs At Risk (OARs) and M delivery techniques, qcMCO generates M(N+1) alternative treatment plans per patient. Objective weight variations for OARs and targets are used to generate alternative qcMCO plans. For 30 locally advanced lung cancer patients, qcMCO plans were generated for dosimetric tradeoffs to four OARs: each lung, heart, and esophagus (N=4) and 4 delivery techniques (simple 4-field arrangements, 9-field coplanar IMRT, 27-field non-coplanar IMRT, and non-coplanarmore » Arc IMRT). Quasi-constrained objectives included target prescription isodose to 95% (PTV-D95), maximum PTV dose (PTV-Dmax)< 110% of prescription, and spinal cord Dmax<45 Gy. The algorithm’s ability to meet these constraints while simultaneously revealing dosimetric tradeoffs was investigated. Statistically significant dosimetric tradeoffs were defined such that the coefficient of determination between dosimetric indices which varied by at least 5 Gy between different plans was >0.8. Results: The qcMCO plans varied mean dose by >5 Gy to ipsilateral lung for 24/30 patients, contralateral lung for 29/30 patients, esophagus for 29/30 patients, and heart for 19/30 patients. In the 600 plans computed without human interaction, average PTV-D95=67.4±3.3 Gy, PTV-Dmax=79.2±5.3 Gy, and spinal cord Dmax was >45 Gy in 93 plans (>50 Gy in 2/600 plans). Statistically significant dosimetric tradeoffs were evident in 19/30 plans, including multiple tradeoffs of at least 5 Gy between multiple OARs in 7/30 cases. The most common statistically significant tradeoff was increasing PTV-Dmax to reduce OAR dose (15/30 patients). Conclusion: The qcMCO method can conform to quasi-constrained objectives while revealing significant variations in OAR doses including mean dose reductions >5 Gy. Clinical implementation will facilitate patient-specific decision making based on achievable dosimetry as opposed to accept/reject models based on population derived objectives.« less
  • Purpose: In this work, the feasibility of performing absolute dose to water measurements using a constant temperature graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) in a clinical environment is established. Methods: A numerical design optimization study was conducted by simulating the heat transfer in the GPC resulting from irradiation using a finite element method software package. The choice of device shape, dimensions, and materials was made to minimize the heat loss in the sensitive volume of the GPC. The resulting design, which incorporates a novel aerogel-based thermal insulator, and 15 temperature sensitive resistors capable of both Joule heating and measuring temperature, was constructedmore » in house. A software based process controller was developed to stabilize the temperatures of the GPC’s constituent graphite components to within a few 10’s of µK. This control system enables the GPC to operate in either the quasi-adiabatic or isothermal mode, two well-known, and independent calorimetry techniques. Absorbed dose to water measurements were made using these two methods under standard conditions in a 6 MV 1000 MU/min photon beam and subsequently compared against TG-51 derived values. Results: Compared to an expected dose to water of 76.9 cGy/100 MU, the average GPC-measured doses were 76.5 ± 0.5 and 76.9 ± 0.5 cGy/100 MU for the adiabatic and isothermal modes, respectively. The Monte Carlo calculated graphite to water dose conversion was 1.013, and the adiabatic heat loss correction was 1.003. With an overall uncertainty of about 1%, the most significant contributions were the specific heat capacity (type B, 0.8%) and the repeatability (type A, 0.6%). Conclusion: While the quasi-adiabatic mode of operation had been validated in previous work, this is the first time that the GPC has been successfully used isothermally. This proof-of-concept will serve as the basis for further study into the GPC’s application to small fields and MRI-linac dosimetry. This work has been supported in part by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) grant 432290, NSERC grants RGPIN 298191 & 435608-13, Canadian Institutes of Health Research doctoral scholarship GSD-121793. This work has also been supported by Sun Nuclear Corporation.« less