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Title: WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation

Abstract

Purpose: The current standard-of-care imaging used to evaluate lung cancer patients for surgical resection is nuclear-medicine ventilation. Surgeons use nuclear-medicine images along with pulmonary function tests (PFT) to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung that would be lost with surgery. 4DCT-ventilation is an emerging imaging modality developed in radiation oncology that uses 4DCT data to calculate lung ventilation maps. We perform the first retrospective study to assess the use of 4DCT-ventilation for pre-operative surgical evaluation. The purpose of this work was to compare %PPO-PFT values calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine imaging. Methods: 16 lung cancer patients retrospectively reviewed had undergone 4DCTs, nuclear-medicine imaging, and had Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) acquired as part of a standard PFT. For each patient, 4DCT data sets, spatial registration, and a density-change based model were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation maps. Both 4DCT and nuclear-medicine images were used to calculate %PPO-FEV1 using %PPO-FEV1=pre-operative FEV1*(1-fraction of total ventilation of resected lung). Fraction of ventilation resected was calculated assuming lobectomy and pneumonectomy. The %PPO-FEV1 values were compared between the 4DCT-ventilation-based calculations and the nuclear-medicine-based calculations using correlation coefficients and average differences. Results: The correlation between %PPO-FEV1 valuesmore » calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine were 0.81 (p<0.01) and 0.99 (p<0.01) for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. The average difference between the 4DCT-ventilation based and the nuclear-medicine-based %PPO-FEV1 values were small, 4.1±8.5% and 2.9±3.0% for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. Conclusion: The high correlation results provide a strong rationale for a clinical trial translating 4DCT-ventilation to the surgical domain. Compared to nuclear-medicine, 4DCT-ventilation is cheaper, does not require a radioactive contrast agent, provides a faster imaging procedure, and has improved spatial resolution. 4DCT-ventilation can reduce the cost and imaging time for patients while providing improved spatial accuracy and quantitative results for surgeons. YV discloses grant from State of Colorado.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)
  2. University Texas Medical Branch of Galveston, League City, TX (United States)
  3. Beamont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654096
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CLINICAL TRIALS; CONTRAST MEDIA; CORRELATIONS; IMAGES; LUNGS; PATIENTS; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Vinogradskiy, Y, Jackson, M, Schubert, L, Jones, B, Mitchell, J, Kavanagh, B, Miften, M, Castillo, R, Castillo, E, and Guerrero, T. WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957735.
Vinogradskiy, Y, Jackson, M, Schubert, L, Jones, B, Mitchell, J, Kavanagh, B, Miften, M, Castillo, R, Castillo, E, & Guerrero, T. WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957735.
Vinogradskiy, Y, Jackson, M, Schubert, L, Jones, B, Mitchell, J, Kavanagh, B, Miften, M, Castillo, R, Castillo, E, and Guerrero, T. Wed . "WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957735.
@article{osti_22654096,
title = {WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation},
author = {Vinogradskiy, Y and Jackson, M and Schubert, L and Jones, B and Mitchell, J and Kavanagh, B and Miften, M and Castillo, R and Castillo, E and Guerrero, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The current standard-of-care imaging used to evaluate lung cancer patients for surgical resection is nuclear-medicine ventilation. Surgeons use nuclear-medicine images along with pulmonary function tests (PFT) to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung that would be lost with surgery. 4DCT-ventilation is an emerging imaging modality developed in radiation oncology that uses 4DCT data to calculate lung ventilation maps. We perform the first retrospective study to assess the use of 4DCT-ventilation for pre-operative surgical evaluation. The purpose of this work was to compare %PPO-PFT values calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine imaging. Methods: 16 lung cancer patients retrospectively reviewed had undergone 4DCTs, nuclear-medicine imaging, and had Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) acquired as part of a standard PFT. For each patient, 4DCT data sets, spatial registration, and a density-change based model were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation maps. Both 4DCT and nuclear-medicine images were used to calculate %PPO-FEV1 using %PPO-FEV1=pre-operative FEV1*(1-fraction of total ventilation of resected lung). Fraction of ventilation resected was calculated assuming lobectomy and pneumonectomy. The %PPO-FEV1 values were compared between the 4DCT-ventilation-based calculations and the nuclear-medicine-based calculations using correlation coefficients and average differences. Results: The correlation between %PPO-FEV1 values calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine were 0.81 (p<0.01) and 0.99 (p<0.01) for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. The average difference between the 4DCT-ventilation based and the nuclear-medicine-based %PPO-FEV1 values were small, 4.1±8.5% and 2.9±3.0% for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. Conclusion: The high correlation results provide a strong rationale for a clinical trial translating 4DCT-ventilation to the surgical domain. Compared to nuclear-medicine, 4DCT-ventilation is cheaper, does not require a radioactive contrast agent, provides a faster imaging procedure, and has improved spatial resolution. 4DCT-ventilation can reduce the cost and imaging time for patients while providing improved spatial accuracy and quantitative results for surgeons. YV discloses grant from State of Colorado.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957735},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Variation in function of different lung regions has been ignored so far for conventional lung cancer treatment planning, which may lead to higher risk of radiation induced lung disease. 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging provides a novel yet convenient approach for lung functional imaging as 4DCT is taken as routine for lung cancer treatment. Our work aims to evaluate the impact of accounting for spatial heterogeneity in lung function using 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging for proton and IMRT plans. Methods: Six patients with advanced stage lung cancer of various tumor locations were retrospectively evaluated for the study. Protonmore » and IMRT plans were designed following identical planning objective and constrains for each patient. Ventilation images were calculated from patients’ 4DCT using deformable image registration implemented by Velocity AI software based on Jacobian-metrics. Lung was delineated into two function level regions based on ventilation (low and high functional area). High functional region was defined as lung ventilation greater than 30%. Dose distribution and statistics in different lung function area was calculated for patients. Results: Variation in dosimetric statistics of different function lung region was observed between proton and IMRT plans. In all proton plans, high function lung regions receive lower maximum dose (100.2%–108.9%), compared with IMRT plans (106.4%–119.7%). Interestingly, three out of six proton plans gave higher mean dose by up to 2.2% than IMRT to high function lung region. Lower mean dose (lower by up to 14.1%) and maximum dose (lower by up to 9%) were observed in low function lung for proton plans. Conclusion: A systematic approach was developed to generate function lung ventilation imaging and use it to evaluate plans. This method hold great promise in function analysis of lung during planning. We are currently studying more subjects to evaluate this tool.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the megavoltage imaging performance of a novel, water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device (EPID) developed for simultaneous imaging and dosimetry applications in radiotherapy. Methods: A novel EPID prototype based on active matrix flat panel imager technology has been developed by our group and previously reported to exhibit a water-equivalent dose response. It was constructed by replacing all components above the photodiode detector in a standard clinical EPID (including the copper plate and phosphor screen) with a 15 × 15 cm{sup 2} array of plastic scintillator fibers. Individual fibers measured 0.5 × 0.5 × 30 mm{sup 3}. Spatial resolutionmore » was evaluated experimentally relative to that of a standard EPID with the thin slit technique to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) for 6 MV x-ray beams. Monte Carlo (MC) EPID models were used to benchmark simulated MTFs against the measurements. The zero spatial frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE(0)) was simulated for both EPID configurations and a preliminary optimization of the prototype was performed by evaluating DQE(0) as a function of fiber length up to 50 mm. Results: The MC-simulated DQE(0) for the prototype EPID configuration was ∼7 times greater than that of the standard EPID. The prototype’s DQE(0) also increased approximately linearly with fiber length, from ∼1% at 5 mm length to ∼11% at 50 mm length. The standard EPID MTF was greater than the prototype EPID’s for all spatial frequencies, reflecting the trade off between x-ray detection efficiency and spatial resolution with thick scintillators. Conclusion: This study offers promising evidence that a water-equivalent EPID previously demonstrated for radiotherapy dosimetry may also be used for radiotherapy imaging applications. Future studies on optimising the detector design will be performed to develop a next-generation prototype that offers improved megavoltage imaging performance, with the aim to at least match that of current clinical EPIDs. Funding for this project was provided by an Australian Research Council Linkage Project grant (2015) between The University of Sydney, South Western Sydney Local Health District and Perkin-Elmer Pty Ltd.« less
  • Purpose: MRI has become an attractive tool for tumor motion management. Current MR-compatible phantoms are only capable of reproducing translational motion. This study describes the construction and validation of a more realistic, MRI-compatible lung phantom that is deformable internally as well as externally. We demonstrate a radiotherapy application of this phantom by validating the geometric accuracy of the open-source deformable image registration software NiftyReg (UCL, UK). Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available dynamic breathing torso phantom was filled with natural latex foam with eleven water tubes. A rigid foam cut-out served as the diaphragm. A high-precision programmable, in-house, MRI-compatiblemore » motion platform was used to drive the diaphragm. The phantom was imaged on a 3T scanner (Philips, Ingenia). Twenty seven tumor traces previously recorded from lung cancer patients were programmed into the phantom and 2D+t image sequences were acquired using a sparse-sampling sequence k-t BLAST (accn=3, resolution=0.66×0.66×5mm3; acquisition-time=110ms/slice). The geometric fidelity of the MRI-derived trajectories was validated against those obtained via fluoroscopy using the on board kV imager on a Truebeam linac. NiftyReg was used to perform frame by frame deformable image registration. The location of each marker predicted by using NiftyReg was compared with the values calculated by intensity-based segmentation on each frame. Results: In all cases, MR trajectories were within 1 mm of corresponding fluoroscopy trajectories. RMSE between centroid positions obtained from segmentation with those obtained by NiftyReg varies from 0.1 to 0.21 mm in the SI direction and 0.08 to 0.13 mm in the LR direction showing the high accuracy of deformable registration. Conclusion: We have successfully designed and demonstrated a phantom that can accurately reproduce deformable motion under a variety of imaging modalities including MRI, CT and x-ray fluodoscopy, making it an invaluable research tool for validating novel motion management strategies. This work was partially supported through research funding from National Institutes of Health (R01CA169102).« less
  • Purpose: Compared to traditional radiotherapy techniques, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides more favorable outcomes during the treatment of certain lung tumors. Despite advancements in image guidance, accurate target localization still remains a challenge. In this work, we expand our knowledge of a novel scatter imaging modality in order to develop a real-time tumor localization method using scattered photons from the patient during treatment. Methods: Images of the QUASAR™ Respiratory Motion Phantom were taken by irradiating it on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The scattered radiation was detected using a flat panel-based pinhole camera detection system. Two motion settings were investigated:more » static and dynamic. In the former, the lung tumor was manually shifted between imaging. In the latter, the lung tumor was set to move at a certain frequency and amplitude while the images were acquired continuously for one minute. The accuracy of tumor localization and the irradiation time required to distinguish the lung tumor were studied. Results: The comparison of measured and expected location of the lung tumor during static motion was shown to be under standard deviation (STD) of 0.064 with a mean STD of 0.031cm. The dynamic motion was taken at a rate of 1400 MU/min for one minute and the measured location of the lung tumor was then compared with the QUASAR phantom’s sinusoidal motion pattern and the agreement found to be at an average STD of 0.275cm. The location of the lung tumor was investigated using aggregate images consisting of 1 or 2 frames/image and the change was below STD of 0.30cm. The lung tumor also appeared to be blurrier in images consisting of two frames. Conclusion: Based on our preliminary results real-time image guidance using the scatter imaging modality to localize and track tumors during lung SBRT has the potential to become clinical reality.« less
  • Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing themore » scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive approach, employing multiple simulation techniques and experiments, is taken to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel scatter imaging modality for the necessary real-time image guidance.« less