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Title: TU-H-207A-02: Relative Importance of the Various Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Monte Carlo Simulated CT Dose Index

Abstract

Purpose: Monte Carlo simulation is a frequently used technique for assessing patient dose in CT. The accuracy of a Monte Carlo program is often validated using the standard CT dose index (CTDI) phantoms by comparing simulated and measured CTDI{sub 100}. To achieve good agreement, many input parameters in the simulation (e.g., energy spectrum and effective beam width) need to be determined. However, not all the parameters have equal importance. Our aim was to assess the relative importance of the various factors that influence the accuracy of simulated CTDI{sub 100}. Methods: A Monte Carlo program previously validated for a clinical CT system was used to simulate CTDI{sub 100}. For the standard CTDI phantoms (32 and 16 cm in diameter), CTDI{sub 100} values from central and four peripheral locations at 70 and 120 kVp were first simulated using a set of reference input parameter values (treated as the truth). To emulate the situation in which the input parameter values used by the researcher may deviate from the truth, additional simulations were performed in which intentional errors were introduced into the input parameters, the effects of which on simulated CTDI{sub 100} were analyzed. Results: At 38.4-mm collimation, errors in effective beam width upmore » to 5.0 mm showed negligible effects on simulated CTDI{sub 100} (<1.0%). Likewise, errors in acrylic density of up to 0.01 g/cm{sup 3} resulted in small CTDI{sub 100} errors (<2.5%). In contrast, errors in spectral HVL produced more significant effects: slight deviations (±0.2 mm Al) produced errors up to 4.4%, whereas more extreme deviations (±1.4 mm Al) produced errors as high as 25.9%. Lastly, ignoring the CT table introduced errors up to 13.9%. Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulated CTDI{sub 100} is insensitive to errors in effective beam width and acrylic density. However, they are sensitive to errors in spectral HVL. To obtain accurate results, the CT table should not be ignored. This work was supported by a Faculty Research and Development Award from Cleveland State University.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654034
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; BEAM PROFILES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES; ENERGY SPECTRA; ERRORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSES; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Citation Formats

Marous, L, Muryn, J, Liptak, C, Morgan, A, Dong, F, Li, X, Section of Medical Physics, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, and Primak, A. TU-H-207A-02: Relative Importance of the Various Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Monte Carlo Simulated CT Dose Index. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957638.
Marous, L, Muryn, J, Liptak, C, Morgan, A, Dong, F, Li, X, Section of Medical Physics, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, & Primak, A. TU-H-207A-02: Relative Importance of the Various Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Monte Carlo Simulated CT Dose Index. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957638.
Marous, L, Muryn, J, Liptak, C, Morgan, A, Dong, F, Li, X, Section of Medical Physics, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, and Primak, A. 2016. "TU-H-207A-02: Relative Importance of the Various Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Monte Carlo Simulated CT Dose Index". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957638.
@article{osti_22654034,
title = {TU-H-207A-02: Relative Importance of the Various Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Monte Carlo Simulated CT Dose Index},
author = {Marous, L and Muryn, J and Liptak, C and Morgan, A and Dong, F and Li, X and Section of Medical Physics, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH and Primak, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Monte Carlo simulation is a frequently used technique for assessing patient dose in CT. The accuracy of a Monte Carlo program is often validated using the standard CT dose index (CTDI) phantoms by comparing simulated and measured CTDI{sub 100}. To achieve good agreement, many input parameters in the simulation (e.g., energy spectrum and effective beam width) need to be determined. However, not all the parameters have equal importance. Our aim was to assess the relative importance of the various factors that influence the accuracy of simulated CTDI{sub 100}. Methods: A Monte Carlo program previously validated for a clinical CT system was used to simulate CTDI{sub 100}. For the standard CTDI phantoms (32 and 16 cm in diameter), CTDI{sub 100} values from central and four peripheral locations at 70 and 120 kVp were first simulated using a set of reference input parameter values (treated as the truth). To emulate the situation in which the input parameter values used by the researcher may deviate from the truth, additional simulations were performed in which intentional errors were introduced into the input parameters, the effects of which on simulated CTDI{sub 100} were analyzed. Results: At 38.4-mm collimation, errors in effective beam width up to 5.0 mm showed negligible effects on simulated CTDI{sub 100} (<1.0%). Likewise, errors in acrylic density of up to 0.01 g/cm{sup 3} resulted in small CTDI{sub 100} errors (<2.5%). In contrast, errors in spectral HVL produced more significant effects: slight deviations (±0.2 mm Al) produced errors up to 4.4%, whereas more extreme deviations (±1.4 mm Al) produced errors as high as 25.9%. Lastly, ignoring the CT table introduced errors up to 13.9%. Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulated CTDI{sub 100} is insensitive to errors in effective beam width and acrylic density. However, they are sensitive to errors in spectral HVL. To obtain accurate results, the CT table should not be ignored. This work was supported by a Faculty Research and Development Award from Cleveland State University.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957638},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: In intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), energy dependent, protons per monitor unit (MU) calibration factors are important parameters that determine absolute dose values from energy deposition data obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of MC-computed absolute dose distributions to the protons/MU calibration factors in IMPT. Methods: A “verification plan” (i.e., treatment beams applied individually to water phantom) of a head and neck patient plan was calculated using MC technique. The patient plan had three beams; one posterior-anterior (PA); two anterior oblique. Dose prescription was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. Ofmore » the total MUs, 58% was delivered in PA beam, 25% and 17% in other two. Energy deposition data obtained from the MC simulation were converted to Gy using energy dependent protons/MU calibrations factors obtained from two methods. First method is based on experimental measurements and MC simulations. Second is based on hand calculations, based on how many ion pairs were produced per proton in the dose monitor and how many ion pairs is equal to 1 MU (vendor recommended method). Dose distributions obtained from method one was compared with those from method two. Results: Average difference of 8% in protons/MU calibration factors between method one and two converted into 27 % difference in absolute dose values for PA beam; although dose distributions preserved the shape of 3D dose distribution qualitatively, they were different quantitatively. For two oblique beams, significant difference in absolute dose was not observed. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that protons/MU calibration factors can have a significant impact on absolute dose values in IMPT depending on the fraction of MUs delivered. When number of MUs increases the effect due to the calibration factors amplify. In determining protons/MU calibration factors, experimental method should be preferred in MC dose calculations. Research supported by National Cancer Institute grant P01CA021239.« less
  • Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms have the potential for greater accuracy than traditional model-based algorithms. This enhanced accuracy is particularly evident in regions of lateral scatter disequilibrium, which can develop during treatments incorporating small field sizes and low-density tissue. A heterogeneous slab phantom was used to evaluate the accuracy of several commercially available dose calculation algorithms, including Monte Carlo dose calculation for CyberKnife, Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm and Pencil Beam convolution for the Eclipse planning system, and convolution-superposition for the Xio planning system. The phantom accommodated slabs of varying density; comparisons between planned and measured dose distributions were accomplished with radiochromicmore » film. The Monte Carlo algorithm provided the most accurate comparison between planned and measured dose distributions. In each phantom irradiation, the Monte Carlo predictions resulted in gamma analysis comparisons >97%, using acceptance criteria of 3% dose and 3-mm distance to agreement. In general, the gamma analysis comparisons for the other algorithms were <95%. The Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for CyberKnife provides more accurate dose distribution calculations in regions of lateral electron disequilibrium than commercially available model-based algorithms. This is primarily because of the ability of Monte Carlo algorithms to implicitly account for tissue heterogeneities, density scaling functions; and/or effective depth correction factors are not required.« less
  • Purpose: Acuros BV has become available to perform accurate dose calculations in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with phantom heterogeneity considered by solving the Boltzmann transport equation. In this work, we performed validation studies regarding the dose calculation accuracy of Acuros BV in cases with a shielded cylinder applicator using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Fifteen cases were considered in our studies, covering five different diameters of the applicator and three different shielding degrees. For each case, a digital phantom was created in Varian BrachyVision with the cylinder applicator inserted in the middle of a large water phantom. A treatment plan withmore » eight dwell positions was generated for these fifteen cases. Dose calculations were performed with Acuros BV. We then generated a voxelized phantom of the same geometry, and the materials were modeled according to the vendor’s specifications. MC dose calculations were then performed using our in-house developed fast MC dose engine for HDR brachytherapy (gBMC) on a GPU platform, which is able to simulate both photon transport and electron transport in a voxelized geometry. A phase-space file for the Ir-192 HDR source was used as a source model for MC simulations. Results: Satisfactory agreements between the dose distributions calculated by Acuros BV and those calculated by gBMC were observed in all cases. Quantitatively, we computed point-wise dose difference within the region that receives a dose higher than 10% of the reference dose, defined to be the dose at 5mm outward away from the applicator surface. The mean dose difference was ∼0.45%–0.51% and the 95-percentile maximum difference was ∼1.24%–1.47%. Conclusion: Acuros BV is able to accurately perform dose calculations in HDR brachytherapy with a shielded cylinder applicator.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), definedmore » as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor.« less
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