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Title: TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System

Abstract

Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount neededmore » for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
  3. ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654025
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTER CODES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NMR IMAGING; RADIOTHERAPY; RADIOWAVE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Low, D, Mutic, S, Shvartsman, S, Chmielewski, T, Fought, G, Sharma, A, and Dempsey, J. TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957624.
Low, D, Mutic, S, Shvartsman, S, Chmielewski, T, Fought, G, Sharma, A, & Dempsey, J. TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957624.
Low, D, Mutic, S, Shvartsman, S, Chmielewski, T, Fought, G, Sharma, A, and Dempsey, J. 2016. "TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957624.
@article{osti_22654025,
title = {TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System},
author = {Low, D and Mutic, S and Shvartsman, S and Chmielewski, T and Fought, G and Sharma, A and Dempsey, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount needed for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957624},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the radiofrequency waves emanating from linear accelerator components from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system of an integrated MRI-linac. Methods: An MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. The radiofrequency waves created by the accelerating process would degrade MR image quality, so a method for containing the radiofrequency waves and isolating the MR imager from them was developed. The linear accelerator radiofrequency modulator was placed outside the room, so a filter was designed to eliminate the radiofrequency corresponding to the proton Larmour frequency ofmore » 14.7 MHz. Placing the radiofrequency emitting components in a typical Faraday cage would have reduced the radiofrequency emissions, but the design would be susceptible to small gaps in the shield due to the efficiency of the Faraday cage reflecting internal radiofrequency emissions. To reduce internal radiofrequency reflections, the Faraday cage was lined with carbon fiber sheets. Carbon fiber has the property of attenuating the radiofrequency energy so that the overall radiofrequency field inside the Faraday cage is reduced, decreasing any radiofrequency energy emitted from small gaps in the cage walls. Results: Within a 1.2 MHz band centered on the Larmor frequency, the radiofrequency (RF) leakage from the Faraday cage was measured to be −90 dB with no RF on, −40 dB with the RF on and no shield, returning to −90 dB with the RF on and shields in place. The radiofrequency filter attenuated the linear accelerator modulator emissions in the 14.7 MHz band by 70 dB. Conclusions: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of isolating the high power RF system from the MRI, has been solved. The measured radiofrequency emissions are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This research was funded by ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood, OH.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the design and characteristics of a novel linac-based MRI guided radiation therapy system that addresses RF and magnetic field interference and that can be housed in conventional radiotherapy vaults. Methods: The MR-IGRT system will provide simultaneous MR imaging combined with both simple (3D) and complex (IMRT, SBRT, SRS) techniques. The system is a combination of a) double-donut split solenoidal superconducting 0.345T MRI; and b) a 90 cm isocenter ring-gantry mounted 6MV, flattening filter-free linac coupled with a stacked doubly-focused multileaf collimator with 4 mm resolution. A novel RF shielding and absorption technology was developed to isolate themore » beam generating RF emissions from the MR, while a novel magnetic shielding sleeve system was developed to place the magnetic field-sensitive components in low-magnetic field regions. The system design produces high spatial resolution radiation beams with state-of-the art radiation dose characteristics and simultaneous MR imaging. Results: Prototype testing with a spectrum analyzer has demonstrated complete elimination of linac RF inside the treatment room. The magnetic field inside of the magnetic shielding was well below the specification, allowing the linear accelerator to operate normally. A novel on-gantry shimming system maintained < 25 ppm magnetic field homogeneity over a 45 cm spherical field of view for all gantry angles. Conclusion: The system design demonstrates the feasibility coupling a state-of-the art linac system with a 0.345T MRI, enabling highly conformal radiation therapy with simultaneous MR image guidance. S. Mutic’s employer (Washington University) has grant with ViewRay; D. Low is former ViewRay scientific advisory board member (ended October 2015); T. Chmielewski, G. Fought, M. Hernandez, I. Kawrakow, A. Sharma, S. Shvartsman, J. Dempsey are employees of ViewRay with stock options (Dempsey has leadership role and Dempsey/Kawrakow have stock).« less
  • RadiaBeam is developing a novel linear accelerator which produces both kilovoltage ({approx}100 keV) X-rays for imaging, and megavoltage (6 to 20 MeV) X-rays for therapy. We call this system the DEXITron: Dual Energy X-ray source for Imaging and Therapy. The Dexitron is enabled by an innovation in the electromagnetic design of the linac, which allows the output energy to be rapidly switched from high energy to low energy. In brief, the method involves switching the phase of the radiofrequency (RF) power by 180 degrees at some point in the linac such that, after that point, the linac decelerates the beam,more » rather than accelerating it. The Dexitron will have comparable cost to other linacs, and avoids the problems associated with current IGRT equipment.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the performance of a linear accelerator operating in a compact MRI-guided radiation therapy system. Methods: A commercial linear accelerator was placed in an MRI unit that is employed in a commercial MR-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. The linear accelerator components were placed within magnetic field-reducing hardware that provided magnetic fields of less than 40 G for the magnetron, gun driver, and port circulator, with 1 G for the linear accelerator. The system did not employ a flattening filter. The test linear accelerator was an industrial 4 MV model that was employed to test the abilitymore » to run an accelerator in the MR environment. An MR-compatible diode detector array was used to measure the beam profiles with the accelerator outside and inside the MR field and with the gradient coils on and off to examine if there was any effect on the delivered dose distribution. The beam profiles and time characteristics of the beam were measured. Results: The beam profiles exhibited characteristic unflattened Bremsstrahlung features with less than ±1.5% differences in the profile magnitude when the system was outside and inside the magnet and less than 1% differences with the gradient coils on and off. The central axis dose rate fluctuated by less than 1% over a 30 second period when outside and inside the MRI. Conclusion: A linaccompatible MR design has been shown to be effective in not perturbing the operation of a commercial linear accelerator. While the accelerator used in the tests was 4MV, there is nothing fundamentally different with the operation of a 6MV unit, implying that the design will enable operation of the proposed clinical unit. Research funding provided by ViewRay, Inc.« less
  • Purpose: To present local control, complications, and cosmetic outcomes of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for early breast cancer, as well as technical aspects related to the use of a nondedicated linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: This prospective trial began in May of 2004. Eligibility criteria were biopsy-proven breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma, age >40 years, tumor <3 cm, and cN0. Exclusion criteria were in situ or lobular types, multicentricity, skin invasion, any contraindication for surgery and/or radiation therapy, sentinel lymph node involvement, metastasis, or another malignancy. Patients underwent classic quadrantectomy with intraoperative sentinel lymph node and margins evaluation. If both free, the patient wasmore » transferred from operative suite to linear accelerator room, and IORT was delivered (21 Gy). Primary endpoint: local recurrence (LR); secondary endpoints: toxicities and aesthetics. Quality assurance involved using a customized shield for chest wall protection, applying procedures to minimize infection caused by patient transportation, and using portal films to check collimator-shield alignment. Results: A total of 152 patients were included, with at least 1 year follow-up. Median age (range) was 58.3 (40-85.4) years, and median follow-up time was 50.7 (12-110.5) months. The likelihood of 5-year local recurrence was 3.7%. There were 3 deaths, 2 of which were cancer related. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year actuarial estimates of overall, disease-free, and local recurrence-free survivals were 97.8%, 92.5%, and 96.3%, respectively. The overall incidences of acute and late toxicities were 12.5% and 29.6%, respectively. Excellent, good, fair, and bad cosmetic results were observed in 76.9%, 15.8%, 4.3%, and 2.8% of patients, respectively. Most treatments were performed with a 5-cm collimator, and in 39.8% of the patients the electron-beam energy used was ≥12 MeV. All patients underwent portal film evaluation, and the shielding was repositioned in 39.9% of cases. No infection or anesthesia complications were observed. Conclusions: Local control with IORT was adequate, with low complication rates and good cosmetic outcomes. More than one-third of patients benefited from the “image-guidance” approach, and almost 40% benefited from the option of higher electron beam energies.« less