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Title: TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams

Abstract

Purpose: To achieve improved stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) dose distributions using orthovoltage energy fluence modulation with inverse planning optimization techniques. Methods: A pencil beam model was used to calculate dose distributions from the institution’s orthovoltage unit at 250 kVp. Kernels for the model were derived using Monte Carlo methods as well as measurements with radiochromic film. The orthovoltage photon spectra, modulated by varying thicknesses of attenuating material, were approximated using open-source software. A genetic algorithm search heuristic routine was used to optimize added tungsten filtration thicknesses to approach rectangular function dose distributions at depth. Optimizations were performed for depths of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, with cone sizes of 8, 10, and 12 mm. Results: Circularly-symmetric tungsten filters were designed based on the results of the optimization, to modulate the orthovoltage beam across the aperture of an SRS cone collimator. For each depth and cone size combination examined, the beam flatness and 80–20% and 90–10% penumbrae were calculated for both standard, open cone-collimated beams as well as for the optimized, filtered beams. For all configurations tested, the modulated beams were able to achieve improved penumbra widths and flatness statistics at depth, with flatness improving between 33 and 52%, and penumbrae improvingmore » between 18 and 25% for the modulated beams compared to the unmodulated beams. Conclusion: A methodology has been described that may be used to optimize the spatial distribution of added filtration material in an orthovoltage SRS beam to result in dose distributions at depth with improved flatness and penumbrae compared to standard open cones. This work provides the mathematical foundation for a novel, orthovoltage energy fluence-modulated SRS system.« less

Authors:
;  [1];
  1. Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654019
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAMS; COMPUTER CODES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SURGERY; SYMMETRY

Citation Formats

Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, and Bender, E. TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, & Bender, E. TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, and Bender, E. Wed . "TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
@article{osti_22654019,
title = {TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams},
author = {Fagerstrom, J and Culberson, W and Bender, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To achieve improved stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) dose distributions using orthovoltage energy fluence modulation with inverse planning optimization techniques. Methods: A pencil beam model was used to calculate dose distributions from the institution’s orthovoltage unit at 250 kVp. Kernels for the model were derived using Monte Carlo methods as well as measurements with radiochromic film. The orthovoltage photon spectra, modulated by varying thicknesses of attenuating material, were approximated using open-source software. A genetic algorithm search heuristic routine was used to optimize added tungsten filtration thicknesses to approach rectangular function dose distributions at depth. Optimizations were performed for depths of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, with cone sizes of 8, 10, and 12 mm. Results: Circularly-symmetric tungsten filters were designed based on the results of the optimization, to modulate the orthovoltage beam across the aperture of an SRS cone collimator. For each depth and cone size combination examined, the beam flatness and 80–20% and 90–10% penumbrae were calculated for both standard, open cone-collimated beams as well as for the optimized, filtered beams. For all configurations tested, the modulated beams were able to achieve improved penumbra widths and flatness statistics at depth, with flatness improving between 33 and 52%, and penumbrae improving between 18 and 25% for the modulated beams compared to the unmodulated beams. Conclusion: A methodology has been described that may be used to optimize the spatial distribution of added filtration material in an orthovoltage SRS beam to result in dose distributions at depth with improved flatness and penumbrae compared to standard open cones. This work provides the mathematical foundation for a novel, orthovoltage energy fluence-modulated SRS system.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957612},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically delivered treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technology. Methods: Three clinical cases were selected (prostate, lung, and pediatric CNS). The VHEE plans were calculated in the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code and pencil beam doses were calculated using the DOSxyznrc MC code for 100 and 200 MeV beams. Treatment plans with VHEE, VMAT, and PBS were optimized in a research version of RayStation using an in house build script in ordermore » to minimize operator bias between the different techniques. Results: For the prostate cancer case, the PBS plan showed lower mean organ at risk (OAR) doses compared to the other modalities. An exception was the femoral heads, due to the lateral beam arrangements. The VMAT plan showed lower mean doses to the rectum and the bladder compared to the 100 MeV VHEE plan. The lung cancer case showed minor differences between the three modalities. However, the PBS plan showed a lower contralateral lung dose. The pediatric CNS case showed a better conformity and lower spinal cord dose for the 100 MeV VHEE plan. For all cases, the 200 MeV VHEE plans were found to be similar to or better than the 100 MeV VHEE plans. Conclusion: The present study showed that VHEE plans are similar or superior to VMAT plans with reduced mean OAR dose and increased target conformity for a variety of clinical cases. With increased VHEE energy, better conformity and even higher reductions in mean OAR doses can be achieved. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-13-1-0165, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. BL and PM are founders of TibaRay,Inc. BL and PM have received research grants from Varian and RaySearch Laboratory.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine the trade-off between prescription isodose and dose gradients in orthovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Point energy deposition kernels (EDKs) describing photon and electron transport were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. EDKs were generated from 10  to 250 keV, in 10 keV increments. The EDKs were converted to pencil beam kernels and used to calculate dose profiles through isocenter from a 4π isotropic delivery from all angles of circularly collimated beams. Monoenergetic beams and an orthovoltage polyenergetic spectrum were analyzed. The dose gradient index (DGI) is the ratio of the 50% prescription isodosemore » volume to the 100% prescription isodose volume and represents a metric by which dose gradients in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be evaluated. Results: Using the 4π dose profiles calculated using pencil beam kernels, the relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was examined for circular cones ranging from 4 to 18 mm in diameter and monoenergetic photon beams with energies ranging from 20 to 250 keV. Values were found to exist for prescription isodose that optimize DGI. Conclusions: The relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was found to be dependent on both field size and energy. Examining this trade-off is an important consideration for designing optimal SRS systems.« less
  • Purpose: The ASTRO document “Safety is no accident: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY RADIATION ONCOLOGY AND CARE” recommends external reviews of specialized modalities. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the implementation of such a program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body radiation Therapy (SBRT). Methods: The margin of error for SRS and SBRT delivery is significantly smaller than that of conventional radiotherapy and therefore requires special attention and diligence. The Novalis Certified program was created to fill an unmet need for specialized SRS / SBRT credentialing. A standards document was drafted by a panel of experts from severalmore » disciplines, including medical physics, radiation oncology and neurosurgery. The document, based on national and international standards, covers requirements in program structure, personnel, training, clinical application, technology, quality management, and patient and equipment QA. The credentialing process was modeled after existing certification programs and includes an institution-generated self-study, extensive document review and an onsite audit. Reviewers generate a descriptive report, which is reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Outcomes of the review may include mandatory requirements and optional recommendations. Results: 15 institutions have received Novalis Certification, including 3 in the US, 7 in Europe, 4 in Australia and 1 in Asia. 87 other centers are at various stages of the process. Nine reviews have resulted in mandatory requirements, however all of these were addressed within three months of the audit report. All reviews have produced specific recommendations ranging from programmatic to technical in nature. Institutions felt that the credentialing process addressed a critical need and was highly valuable to the institution. Conclusion: Novalis Certification is a unique peer review program assessing safety and quality in SRS and SBRT, while recognizing international practice standards. The approach is capable of highlighting outstanding requirements and providing recommendations to enhance both new and established programs. Timothy Solberg is co-owner of Global Radiosurgery services, LLC.« less
  • Purpose: To create a Varian TrueBeam 6 MV FFF Monte Carlo model using BEAMnrc/EGSnrc that accurately reproduces the Varian representative dataset, followed by tuning the model’s source parameters to accurately reproduce in-house measurements. Methods: A BEAMnrc TrueBeam model for 6 MV FFF has been created by modifying a validated 6 MV Varian CL21EX model. Geometric dimensions and materials were adjusted in a trial and error approach to match the fluence and spectra of TrueBeam phase spaces output by the Varian VirtuaLinac. Once the model’s phase space matched Varian’s counterpart using the default source parameters, it was validated to match 10more » × 10 cm{sup 2} Varian representative data obtained with the IBA CC13. The source parameters were then tuned to match in-house 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} PTW microDiamond measurements. All dose to water simulations included detector models to include the effects of volume averaging and the non-water equivalence of the chamber materials, allowing for more accurate source parameter selection. Results: The Varian phase space spectra and fluence were matched with excellent agreement. The in-house model’s PDD agreement with CC13 TrueBeam representative data was within 0.9% local percent difference beyond the first 3 mm. Profile agreement at 10 cm depth was within 0.9% local percent difference and 1.3 mm distance-to-agreement in the central axis and penumbra regions, respectively. Once the source parameters were tuned, PDD agreement with microDiamond measurements was within 0.9% local percent difference beyond 2 mm. The microDiamond profile agreement at 10 cm depth was within 0.6% local percent difference and 0.4 mm distance-to-agreement in the central axis and penumbra regions, respectively. Conclusion: An accurate in-house Monte Carlo model of the Varian TrueBeam was achieved independently of the Varian phase space solution and was tuned to in-house measurements. KO acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant number: 432290).« less
  • AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance -more » Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics Survey of possible calibration protocols for calibration of Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery (GSR) devices Overview of modern Quality Assurance techniques for GSR AAPM TG-218 Tolerance Levels and Methodologies for IMRT Verification QA - Moyed Miften Patient-specific IMRT QA measurement is a process designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered doses. Error tolerance limits are not well-defined or consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report has been prepared to improve the understanding and consistency of this process by providing recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. Learning Objectives: Review measurement methods and methodologies for absolute dose verification Provide recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, the use of analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA Sonja Dieterich has a research agreement with Sun Nuclear Inc. Steven Goetsch is a part-time consultant for Elekta.« less