skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams

Abstract

Purpose: To achieve improved stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) dose distributions using orthovoltage energy fluence modulation with inverse planning optimization techniques. Methods: A pencil beam model was used to calculate dose distributions from the institution’s orthovoltage unit at 250 kVp. Kernels for the model were derived using Monte Carlo methods as well as measurements with radiochromic film. The orthovoltage photon spectra, modulated by varying thicknesses of attenuating material, were approximated using open-source software. A genetic algorithm search heuristic routine was used to optimize added tungsten filtration thicknesses to approach rectangular function dose distributions at depth. Optimizations were performed for depths of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, with cone sizes of 8, 10, and 12 mm. Results: Circularly-symmetric tungsten filters were designed based on the results of the optimization, to modulate the orthovoltage beam across the aperture of an SRS cone collimator. For each depth and cone size combination examined, the beam flatness and 80–20% and 90–10% penumbrae were calculated for both standard, open cone-collimated beams as well as for the optimized, filtered beams. For all configurations tested, the modulated beams were able to achieve improved penumbra widths and flatness statistics at depth, with flatness improving between 33 and 52%, and penumbrae improvingmore » between 18 and 25% for the modulated beams compared to the unmodulated beams. Conclusion: A methodology has been described that may be used to optimize the spatial distribution of added filtration material in an orthovoltage SRS beam to result in dose distributions at depth with improved flatness and penumbrae compared to standard open cones. This work provides the mathematical foundation for a novel, orthovoltage energy fluence-modulated SRS system.« less

Authors:
;  [1];
  1. Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654019
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAMS; COMPUTER CODES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SURGERY; SYMMETRY

Citation Formats

Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, and Bender, E. TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, & Bender, E. TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
Fagerstrom, J, Culberson, W, and Bender, E. 2016. "TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957612.
@article{osti_22654019,
title = {TU-H-BRC-05: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Optimized with Orthovoltage Beams},
author = {Fagerstrom, J and Culberson, W and Bender, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To achieve improved stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) dose distributions using orthovoltage energy fluence modulation with inverse planning optimization techniques. Methods: A pencil beam model was used to calculate dose distributions from the institution’s orthovoltage unit at 250 kVp. Kernels for the model were derived using Monte Carlo methods as well as measurements with radiochromic film. The orthovoltage photon spectra, modulated by varying thicknesses of attenuating material, were approximated using open-source software. A genetic algorithm search heuristic routine was used to optimize added tungsten filtration thicknesses to approach rectangular function dose distributions at depth. Optimizations were performed for depths of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, with cone sizes of 8, 10, and 12 mm. Results: Circularly-symmetric tungsten filters were designed based on the results of the optimization, to modulate the orthovoltage beam across the aperture of an SRS cone collimator. For each depth and cone size combination examined, the beam flatness and 80–20% and 90–10% penumbrae were calculated for both standard, open cone-collimated beams as well as for the optimized, filtered beams. For all configurations tested, the modulated beams were able to achieve improved penumbra widths and flatness statistics at depth, with flatness improving between 33 and 52%, and penumbrae improving between 18 and 25% for the modulated beams compared to the unmodulated beams. Conclusion: A methodology has been described that may be used to optimize the spatial distribution of added filtration material in an orthovoltage SRS beam to result in dose distributions at depth with improved flatness and penumbrae compared to standard open cones. This work provides the mathematical foundation for a novel, orthovoltage energy fluence-modulated SRS system.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957612},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine the trade-off between prescription isodose and dose gradients in orthovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Point energy deposition kernels (EDKs) describing photon and electron transport were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. EDKs were generated from 10  to 250 keV, in 10 keV increments. The EDKs were converted to pencil beam kernels and used to calculate dose profiles through isocenter from a 4π isotropic delivery from all angles of circularly collimated beams. Monoenergetic beams and an orthovoltage polyenergetic spectrum were analyzed. The dose gradient index (DGI) is the ratio of the 50% prescription isodosemore » volume to the 100% prescription isodose volume and represents a metric by which dose gradients in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be evaluated. Results: Using the 4π dose profiles calculated using pencil beam kernels, the relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was examined for circular cones ranging from 4 to 18 mm in diameter and monoenergetic photon beams with energies ranging from 20 to 250 keV. Values were found to exist for prescription isodose that optimize DGI. Conclusions: The relationship between DGI and prescription isodose was found to be dependent on both field size and energy. Examining this trade-off is an important consideration for designing optimal SRS systems.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the use of radiosurgery (RS) alone to the resection cavity after resection of brain metastases as an alternative to adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients with 64 cavities were treated with linear accelerator-based RS alone to the resection cavity after surgical removal of brain metastases between March 2007 and August 2010. Fifty-two patients (81%) had a gross total resection. Median cavity volume was 8.5 cm{sup 3}. Forty-four patients (71%) had a single metastasis. Median marginal and maximum doses were 18 Gy and 20.4 Gy, respectively. Sixty-one cavities (95%) had gross tumor volume to planningmore » target volume expansion of {>=}1 mm. Results: Six-month and 1-year actuarial local recurrence rates were 14% and 22%, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 9.7 months. Six-month and 1-year actuarial distant brain recurrence, total intracranial recurrence, and freedom from WBRT rates were 31% and 51%, 41% and 63%, and 91% and 74%, respectively. The symptomatic cavity radiation necrosis rate was 8%, with 2 patients (3%) undergoing surgery. Of the 11 local failures, 8 were in-field, 1 was marginal, and 2 were both (defined as in-field if {>=}90% of recurrence within the prescription isodose and marginal if {>=}90% outside of the prescription isodose). Conclusions: The high rate of in-field cavity failure suggests that geographic misses with highly conformal RS are not a major contributor to local recurrence. The current dosing regimen derived from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 90-05 should be optimized in this patient population before any direct comparison with WBRT.« less
  • A new beam line for radiotherapy and radiosurgery with accelerated helium-ion beams has been set up at the Bevalac. The new treatment room has been equipped with a very precise patient positioner in order to utilize the superior dose localization properties of light-ion beams. The beam spreading and shaping system is described, the trade-offs involved in positioning the beam modifying devices are discussed, and the physical properties of the generated radiation fields are reported. The Bragg peak modulation by axial beam stacking employing a variable range shifter is explained and the control system including beam monitoring and dosimetry is presented.
  • The Presbyterian-University Hospital of Pittsburgh installed the first clinically designated Leksell gamma knife in the U.S. in August 1987. Gamma knife radiosurgery involves stereotactic target localization with the Leksell frame and subsequent closed-skull single-treatment session irradiation of a lesion with multiple highly focused gamma ray beams produced from 60Co sources. The hemispherical array of sources, the large number of small-diameter beams, and the steep dose gradients surrounding a targeted lesion make physical characterization of the radiation field complex. This paper describes the physical features and the operation of the gamma knife as well as the calibration procedures of the verymore » small, well-collimated beams. The results of studies using in-phantom ion chamber, diode, film, and lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry were all in close agreement. Both single-beam and multiple-beam dose profiles were measured and reported for the interchangeable helmets, which have 4-, 8-, 14-, and 18-mm-diameter collimators. We also describe the dose calculation and treatment planning algorithm in the treatment planning system. Measurements of the accuracy of mechanical and radiation alignment are also performed and discussed.« less
  • Accurate dosimetry of the narrow beam tends to be difficult to perform due to the absence of lateral electronic equilibrium and the steep dose gradient, as well as the finite size of detectors. Thus, although the high dose rate 6 MV beam on the VARIAN Trilogy accelerator is increasingly utilized for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment, there is no general agreement in the SRS beam output factor values among the Trilogy user community. Trilogy SRS beams are confined by cone collimators and the available collimator sizes range from 5 and 10 to 30 mm, in every 2 mm increment. A rangemore » of the relative output factors are in clinic use. This variation may impair observations of dose response and optimizations of the prescribed dose. It is necessary to investigate an accurate, easily performable, and detector independent method for the narrow beam output factor measurement. In this study, a scanning beam/scanning chamber method was proposed to overcome the limitation/difficulty of using a relatively large detector in narrow beam output factor measurement. Specifically, for the scanning beam method, multiple narrow beams are used for the dose measurement using a finite size chamber. These multiple scanning beams form an equivalent large uniform field which provides lateral electron equilibrium condition. After the measurement, the contributions from neighboring beams are deconvolved and the value is used for output factor determinations. For a Linac that cannot move a beam laterally, the scanning chamber method can be used to achieve the same result. The output factors determined in such a method were compared to chambers (a 0.015 cc PTW PinPoint ion chamber and a 0.125 cc PTW ion chamber) and film measurement, as well as with Monte Carlo simulation. Film and Monte Carlo results are found to be in excellent agreement with the measurement using the scan beam method. However, the VARIAN recommended output factors measured directly by Wellhoefer CC01 chamber and Scanditronix photon field diode are consistently higher for all the cones. Especially for the 5 mm cone, the difference is more than 10%. Overall, the results suggested that the new method can help overcoming the detector volume averaging effect and the positioning uncertainties, which constitute the major challenge in small radiosurgical beam output factor measurement, and provide reliable output factors.« less