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Title: TU-FG-209-11: Validation of a Channelized Hotelling Observer to Optimize Chest Radiography Image Processing for Nodule Detection: A Human Observer Study

Abstract

Purpose: To validate the use of a Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) model for guiding image processing parameter selection and enable improved nodule detection in digital chest radiography. Methods: In a previous study, an anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged with and without PMMA simulated nodules using a GE Discovery XR656 digital radiography system. The impact of image processing parameters was then explored using a CHO with 10 Laguerre-Gauss channels. In this work, we validate the CHO’s trend in nodule detectability as a function of two processing parameters by conducting a signal-known-exactly, multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) ROC observer study. Five naive readers scored confidence of nodule visualization in 384 images with 50% nodule prevalence. The image backgrounds were regions-of-interest extracted from 6 normal patient scans, and the digitally inserted simulated nodules were obtained from phantom data in previous work. Each patient image was processed with both a near-optimal and a worst-case parameter combination, as determined by the CHO for nodule detection. The same 192 ROIs were used for each image processing method, with 32 randomly selected lung ROIs per patient image. Finally, the MRMC data was analyzed using the freely available iMRMC software of Gallas et al. Results: The image processing parameters which weremore » optimized for the CHO led to a statistically significant improvement (p=0.049) in human observer AUC from 0.78 to 0.86, relative to the image processing implementation which produced the lowest CHO performance. Conclusion: Differences in user-selectable image processing methods on a commercially available digital radiography system were shown to have a marked impact on performance of human observers in the task of lung nodule detection. Further, the effect of processing on humans was similar to the effect on CHO performance. Future work will expand this study to include a wider range of detection/classification tasks and more observers, including experienced chest radiologists.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654012
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CHEST; COMPUTER CODES; IMAGE PROCESSING; PATIENTS; PERFORMANCE; SIMULATION; VALIDATION

Citation Formats

Sanchez, A, Little, K, Chung, J, Lu, ZF, MacMahon, H, and Reiser, I. TU-FG-209-11: Validation of a Channelized Hotelling Observer to Optimize Chest Radiography Image Processing for Nodule Detection: A Human Observer Study. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957581.
Sanchez, A, Little, K, Chung, J, Lu, ZF, MacMahon, H, & Reiser, I. TU-FG-209-11: Validation of a Channelized Hotelling Observer to Optimize Chest Radiography Image Processing for Nodule Detection: A Human Observer Study. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957581.
Sanchez, A, Little, K, Chung, J, Lu, ZF, MacMahon, H, and Reiser, I. 2016. "TU-FG-209-11: Validation of a Channelized Hotelling Observer to Optimize Chest Radiography Image Processing for Nodule Detection: A Human Observer Study". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957581.
@article{osti_22654012,
title = {TU-FG-209-11: Validation of a Channelized Hotelling Observer to Optimize Chest Radiography Image Processing for Nodule Detection: A Human Observer Study},
author = {Sanchez, A and Little, K and Chung, J and Lu, ZF and MacMahon, H and Reiser, I},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To validate the use of a Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) model for guiding image processing parameter selection and enable improved nodule detection in digital chest radiography. Methods: In a previous study, an anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged with and without PMMA simulated nodules using a GE Discovery XR656 digital radiography system. The impact of image processing parameters was then explored using a CHO with 10 Laguerre-Gauss channels. In this work, we validate the CHO’s trend in nodule detectability as a function of two processing parameters by conducting a signal-known-exactly, multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) ROC observer study. Five naive readers scored confidence of nodule visualization in 384 images with 50% nodule prevalence. The image backgrounds were regions-of-interest extracted from 6 normal patient scans, and the digitally inserted simulated nodules were obtained from phantom data in previous work. Each patient image was processed with both a near-optimal and a worst-case parameter combination, as determined by the CHO for nodule detection. The same 192 ROIs were used for each image processing method, with 32 randomly selected lung ROIs per patient image. Finally, the MRMC data was analyzed using the freely available iMRMC software of Gallas et al. Results: The image processing parameters which were optimized for the CHO led to a statistically significant improvement (p=0.049) in human observer AUC from 0.78 to 0.86, relative to the image processing implementation which produced the lowest CHO performance. Conclusion: Differences in user-selectable image processing methods on a commercially available digital radiography system were shown to have a marked impact on performance of human observers in the task of lung nodule detection. Further, the effect of processing on humans was similar to the effect on CHO performance. Future work will expand this study to include a wider range of detection/classification tasks and more observers, including experienced chest radiologists.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957581},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 Multiplication-Sign 26 cm{sup 2} torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large:more » 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was -15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients were 0.986 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.958-0.996] for FBP and 0.985 (95% CI: 0.863-0.998) for IR. Bland-Altman plots showed excellent agreement for all dose levels and lesions sizes with a mean absolute difference of 1.0%{+-} 1.1% for FBP and 2.1%{+-} 3.3% for IR. Conclusions: Human observer performance on a 2AFC lesion detection task in CT with a uniform background can be accurately predicted by a CHO model observer at different radiation dose levels and for both FBP and IR methods.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate using multiple CT image slices from a single acquisition as independent training images for a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) model to reduce the number of repeated scans for CHO-based CT image quality assessment. Methods: We applied a previously validated CHO model to detect low contrast disk objects formed from cross-sectional images of three epoxy-resin-based rods (diameters: 3, 5, and 9 mm; length: ∼5cm). The rods were submerged in a 35x 25 cm2 iodine-doped water filled phantom, yielding-15 HU object contrast. The phantom was scanned 100 times with and without the rods present. Scan and reconstruction parameters include:more » 5 mm slice thickness at 0.5 mm intervals, 120 kV, 480 Quality Reference mAs, and a 128-slice scanner. The CHO’s detectability index was evaluated as a function of factors related to incorporating multi-slice image data: object misalignment along the z-axis, inter-slice pixel correlation, and number of unique slice locations. In each case, the CHO training set was fixed to 100 images. Results: Artificially shifting the object’s center position by as much as 3 pixels in any direction relative to the Gabor channel filters had insignificant impact on object detectability. An inter-slice pixel correlation of >∼0.2 yielded positive bias in the model’s performance. Incorporating multi-slice image data yielded slight negative bias in detectability with increasing number of slices, likely due to physical variations in the objects. However, inclusion of image data from up to 5 slice locations yielded detectability indices within measurement error of the single slice value. Conclusion: For the investigated model and task, incorporating image data from 5 different slice locations of at least 5 mm intervals into the CHO model yielded detectability indices within measurement error of the single slice value. Consequently, this methodology would Result in a 5-fold reduction in number of image acquisitions. This project was supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01 EB017095 and U01 EB017185 from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the effect of varying system image processing parameters on lung nodule detectability in digital radiography. Methods: An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged in the posterior-anterior position using a GE Discovery XR656 digital radiography system. To simulate lung nodules, a polystyrene board with 6.35mm diameter PMMA spheres was placed adjacent to the phantom (into the x-ray path). Due to magnification, the projected simulated nodules had a diameter in the radiographs of approximately 7.5 mm. The images were processed using one of GE’s default chest settings (Factory3) and reprocessed by varying the “Edge” and “Tissue Contrast” processing parameters, whichmore » were the two user-configurable parameters for a single edge and contrast enhancement algorithm. For each parameter setting, the nodule signals were calculated by subtracting the chest-only image from the image with simulated nodules. Twenty nodule signals were averaged, Gaussian filtered, and radially averaged in order to generate an approximately noiseless signal. For each processing parameter setting, this noise-free signal and 180 background samples from across the lung were used to estimate ideal observer performance in a signal-known-exactly detection task. Performance was estimated using a channelized Hotelling observer with 10 Laguerre-Gauss channel functions. Results: The “Edge” and “Tissue Contrast” parameters each had an effect on the detectability as calculated by the model observer. The CHO-estimated signal detectability ranged from 2.36 to 2.93 and was highest for “Edge” = 4 and “Tissue Contrast” = −0.15. In general, detectability tended to decrease as “Edge” was increased and as “Tissue Contrast” was increased. A human observer study should be performed to validate the relation to human detection performance. Conclusion: Image processing parameters can affect lung nodule detection performance in radiography. While validation with a human observer study is needed, model observer detectability for common tasks could provide a means for optimizing image processing parameters.« less
  • We describe a method for computing linear observer statistics for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstructions of PET images. The method is based on a theoretical approximation for the mean and covariance of MAP reconstructions. In particular, we derive here a closed form for the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) statistic applied to 2D MAP images. We show reasonably good correspondence between these theoretical results and Monte Carlo studies. The accuracy and low computational cost of the approximation allow us to analyze the observer performance over a wide range of operating conditions and parameter settings for the MAP reconstruction algorithm.
  • Imaging dopamine transporters using PET and SPECT probes is a powerful technique for the early diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders. In order to perform automated accurate diagnosis of these diseases, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based model was developed and evaluated using the SPECT tracer [Tc-99m]TRODAT-1. Computer simulations were performed using a digitized striatal phantom to characterize early stages of the disease (20 lesion-present cases with varying lesion size and contrast). Projection data, modeling the effects of attenuation and geometric response function, were obtained for each case. Statistical noise levels corresponding to those observed clinically were added to the projection datamore » to obtain 100 noise realizations for each case. All the projection data were reconstructed, and a subset of the transaxial slices containing the striatum was summed and used for further analysis. CHO models, using the Laguerre-Gaussian functions as channels, were designed for two cases: (1) By training the model using individual lesion-present samples and (2) by training the model using pooled lesion-present samples. A decision threshold obtained for each CHO model was used to classify the study population (n=40). It was observed that individual lesion trained CHO models gave high diagnostic accuracy for lesions that were larger than those used to train the model and vice-versa. On the other hand, the pooled CHO model was found to give a high diagnostic accuracy for all the lesion cases (average diagnostic accuracy=0.95{+-}0.07; p<0.0001 Fisher's exact test). Based on our results, we conclude that a CHO model has the potential to provide early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, thereby improving patient management.« less