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Title: TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image

Abstract

Purpose: The potential of particle therapy has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying thermoacoustic localization of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. Methods: Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the inflector of the 88″ cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 2 Gy were delivered in 2 µs by a beam with peak current of 2 µA. Thermoacoustic emissions were detected by a cardiac array and Verasonics V1 ultrasound system, which also generated a grayscale ultrasound image. 1024 thermoacoustic pulses were averaged before filtering and one-way beamforming focused signal onto the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Experiments were performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil. Results: In the waterbath overlays of the Bragg peak agreed with Monte Carlo simulations to within 800±170 µm. Agreement within 1.3 ± 0.2more » mm was achieved in the gelatin phantom, although relative stopping powers were estimated only to first order from CT scans. Protoacoustic signals were detected after travel from the Bragg peak through 29 mm and 65 mm of phantom material when the cavity was empty and full of olive oil, respectively. Conclusion: Protoacoustic range verification is feasible with a commercial clinical ultrasound array, but at doses exceeding the clinical realm. Further optimization of both transducer array and injection line chopper is required to enable range verification within a 2 Gy dose limit, which would enable online adaptive treatment. This work was supported in part by a UWM Intramural Instrumentation Grant and by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. YMQ was supported by a UWM-OUR summer fellowship.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654002
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BRAGG CURVE; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DOSE LIMITS; IMAGES; MEV RANGE 10-100; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OLIVE OIL; PHANTOMS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; VERIFICATION

Citation Formats

Patch, S, Kireeff Covo, M, Jackson, A, Qadadha, Y, Campbell, K, Albright, R, Bloemhard, P, Donoghue, A, Siero, C, Gimpel, T, Small, S, Ninemire, B, Johnson, M, and Phair, L. TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957549.
Patch, S, Kireeff Covo, M, Jackson, A, Qadadha, Y, Campbell, K, Albright, R, Bloemhard, P, Donoghue, A, Siero, C, Gimpel, T, Small, S, Ninemire, B, Johnson, M, & Phair, L. TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957549.
Patch, S, Kireeff Covo, M, Jackson, A, Qadadha, Y, Campbell, K, Albright, R, Bloemhard, P, Donoghue, A, Siero, C, Gimpel, T, Small, S, Ninemire, B, Johnson, M, and Phair, L. 2016. "TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957549.
@article{osti_22654002,
title = {TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image},
author = {Patch, S and Kireeff Covo, M and Jackson, A and Qadadha, Y and Campbell, K and Albright, R and Bloemhard, P and Donoghue, A and Siero, C and Gimpel, T and Small, S and Ninemire, B and Johnson, M and Phair, L},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The potential of particle therapy has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying thermoacoustic localization of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. Methods: Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the inflector of the 88″ cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 2 Gy were delivered in 2 µs by a beam with peak current of 2 µA. Thermoacoustic emissions were detected by a cardiac array and Verasonics V1 ultrasound system, which also generated a grayscale ultrasound image. 1024 thermoacoustic pulses were averaged before filtering and one-way beamforming focused signal onto the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Experiments were performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil. Results: In the waterbath overlays of the Bragg peak agreed with Monte Carlo simulations to within 800±170 µm. Agreement within 1.3 ± 0.2 mm was achieved in the gelatin phantom, although relative stopping powers were estimated only to first order from CT scans. Protoacoustic signals were detected after travel from the Bragg peak through 29 mm and 65 mm of phantom material when the cavity was empty and full of olive oil, respectively. Conclusion: Protoacoustic range verification is feasible with a commercial clinical ultrasound array, but at doses exceeding the clinical realm. Further optimization of both transducer array and injection line chopper is required to enable range verification within a 2 Gy dose limit, which would enable online adaptive treatment. This work was supported in part by a UWM Intramural Instrumentation Grant and by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. YMQ was supported by a UWM-OUR summer fellowship.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957549},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of singlemore » proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/− 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)« less
  • We present experimental results for proton ionization of nucleobases (adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) based on an event-by-event analysis of the different ions produced combined with an absolute target density determination. We are able to disentangle in detail the various proton ionization channels from mass-analyzed product ion signals in coincidence with the charge-analyzed projectile. In addition we are able to determine a complete set of cross sections for the ionization of these molecular targets by 20-150 keV protons including the total and partial cross sections and the direct-ionization and electron-capture cross sections.
  • In proton therapy, patient quality assurance (QA) requires measuring the beam range, spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), and output factor. If these values can be predicted by using sampling measurements or previous QA data to find the correlation between beam setup parameters and measured data, efforts expended on patient QA can be reduced. Using sampling data, we predicted the range, SOBP, and output factor of the proton beam. To obtain sampling data, we measured the range, SOBP, and output factor for 14 data points at each of 24-beam range options, from 4-28 cm. Prediction conformity was evaluated by the difference betweenmore » predicted and measured patient QA data. Results indicated that for 60% of patients, the values could be predicted within 3% of dose uncertainty.« less
  • Purpose: To study the feasibility of clinical on-line proton beam range verification with PET imaging Methods: We simulated a 179.2-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a PMMA phantom of human brain size, which was then imaged by a brain PET with 300*300*100-mm{sup 3} FOV and different system sensitivities and spatial resolutions. We calculated the mean and standard deviation of positron activity range (AR) from reconstructed PET images, with respect to different data acquisition times (from 5 sec to 300 sec with 5-sec step). We also developed a technique, “Smoothed Maximum Value (SMV)”, to improve AR measurement under a givenmore » dose. Furthermore, we simulated a human brain irradiated by a 110-MeV proton beam of 50-mm diameter with 0.3-Gy dose at Bragg peak and imaged by the above PET system with 40% system sensitivity at the center of FOV and 1.7-mm spatial resolution. Results: MC Simulations on the PMMA phantom showed that, regardless of PET system sensitivities and spatial resolutions, the accuracy and precision of AR were proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of image count if image smoothing was not applied. With image smoothing or SMV method, the accuracy and precision could be substantially improved. For a cylindrical PMMA phantom (200 mm diameter and 290 mm long), the accuracy and precision of AR measurement could reach 1.0 and 1.7 mm, with 100-sec data acquired by the brain PET. The study with a human brain showed it was feasible to achieve sub-millimeter accuracy and precision of AR measurement with acquisition time within 60 sec. Conclusion: This study established the relationship between count statistics and the accuracy and precision of activity-range verification. It showed the feasibility of clinical on-line BR verification with high-performance PET systems and improved AR measurement techniques. Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas grant RP120326, NIH grant R21CA187717, The Cancer Center Support (Core) Grant CA016672 to MD Anderson Cancer Center.« less