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Title: TU-D-209-03: Alignment of the Patient Graphic Model Using Fluoroscopic Images for Skin Dose Mapping

Abstract

Purpose: The Dose Tracking System (DTS) was developed to provide realtime feedback of skin dose and dose rate during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. A color map on a 3D graphic of the patient represents the cumulative dose distribution on the skin. Automated image correlation algorithms are described which use the fluoroscopic procedure images to align and scale the patient graphic for more accurate dose mapping. Methods: Currently, the DTS employs manual patient graphic selection and alignment. To improve the accuracy of dose mapping and automate the software, various methods are explored to extract information about the beam location and patient morphology from the procedure images. To match patient anatomy with a reference projection image, preprocessing is first used, including edge enhancement, edge detection, and contour detection. Template matching algorithms from OpenCV are then employed to find the location of the beam. Once a match is found, the reference graphic is scaled and rotated to fit the patient, using image registration correlation functions in Matlab. The algorithm runs correlation functions for all points and maps all correlation confidences to a surface map. The highest point of correlation is used for alignment and scaling. The transformation data is saved for later model scaling.more » Results: Anatomic recognition is used to find matching features between model and image and image registration correlation provides for alignment and scaling at any rotation angle with less than onesecond runtime, and at noise levels in excess of 150% of those found in normal procedures. Conclusion: The algorithm provides the necessary scaling and alignment tools to improve the accuracy of dose distribution mapping on the patient graphic with the DTS. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. University at Buffalo (SUNY) School of Med., Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653975
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; ALIGNMENT; COMPUTER CODES; CORRELATION FUNCTIONS; DOSE RATES; IMAGES; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; SCALING; SKIN

Citation Formats

Oines, A, Oines, A, Kilian-Meneghin, J, Karthikeyan, B, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. TU-D-209-03: Alignment of the Patient Graphic Model Using Fluoroscopic Images for Skin Dose Mapping. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957504.
Oines, A, Oines, A, Kilian-Meneghin, J, Karthikeyan, B, Rudin, S, & Bednarek, D. TU-D-209-03: Alignment of the Patient Graphic Model Using Fluoroscopic Images for Skin Dose Mapping. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957504.
Oines, A, Oines, A, Kilian-Meneghin, J, Karthikeyan, B, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. Wed . "TU-D-209-03: Alignment of the Patient Graphic Model Using Fluoroscopic Images for Skin Dose Mapping". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957504.
@article{osti_22653975,
title = {TU-D-209-03: Alignment of the Patient Graphic Model Using Fluoroscopic Images for Skin Dose Mapping},
author = {Oines, A and Oines, A and Kilian-Meneghin, J and Karthikeyan, B and Rudin, S and Bednarek, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The Dose Tracking System (DTS) was developed to provide realtime feedback of skin dose and dose rate during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. A color map on a 3D graphic of the patient represents the cumulative dose distribution on the skin. Automated image correlation algorithms are described which use the fluoroscopic procedure images to align and scale the patient graphic for more accurate dose mapping. Methods: Currently, the DTS employs manual patient graphic selection and alignment. To improve the accuracy of dose mapping and automate the software, various methods are explored to extract information about the beam location and patient morphology from the procedure images. To match patient anatomy with a reference projection image, preprocessing is first used, including edge enhancement, edge detection, and contour detection. Template matching algorithms from OpenCV are then employed to find the location of the beam. Once a match is found, the reference graphic is scaled and rotated to fit the patient, using image registration correlation functions in Matlab. The algorithm runs correlation functions for all points and maps all correlation confidences to a surface map. The highest point of correlation is used for alignment and scaling. The transformation data is saved for later model scaling. Results: Anatomic recognition is used to find matching features between model and image and image registration correlation provides for alignment and scaling at any rotation angle with less than onesecond runtime, and at noise levels in excess of 150% of those found in normal procedures. Conclusion: The algorithm provides the necessary scaling and alignment tools to improve the accuracy of dose distribution mapping on the patient graphic with the DTS. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957504},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To compare PCXMC and EGSnrc calculated organ and effective radiation doses from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and interventional fluoroscopically-guided procedures using automatic exposure-event grouping. Methods: For CBCT, we used PCXMC20Rotation.exe to automatically calculate the doses and compared the results to those calculated using EGSnrc with the Zubal patient phantom. For interventional procedures, we use the dose tracking system (DTS) which we previously developed to produce a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure, and the data in the log file is input into PCXMC and EGSnrc for dose calculation. A MATLABmore » program reads data from the log files and groups similar exposures to reduce calculation time. The definition files are then automatically generated in the format used by PCXMC and EGSnrc. Processing is done at the end of the procedure after all exposures are completed. Results: For the Toshiba Infinix CBCT LCI-Middle-Abdominal protocol, most organ doses calculated with PCXMC20Rotation closely matched those calculated with EGSnrc. The effective doses were 33.77 mSv with PCXMC20Rotation and 32.46 mSv with EGSnrc. For a simulated interventional cardiac procedure, similar close agreement in organ dose was obtained between the two codes; the effective doses were 12.02 mSv with PCXMC and 11.35 mSv with EGSnrc. The calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 15 minutes with PCXMC and in about 10 hours with EGSnrc, depending on the level of data grouping and accuracy desired. Conclusion: Effective dose and most organ doses in CBCT and interventional radiology calculated by PCXMC closely match those calculated by EGSnrc. Data grouping, which can be done automatically, makes the calculation time with PCXMC on a standard PC acceptable. This capability expands the dose information that can be provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship between indirect dose metrics and PSD could be established for fluoroscopically-guided interventional cardiology procedures. Methods: PSD were measured directly using XR-RV3 radiochromic film for 94 consecutive fluoroscopically guided interventional cardiology procedures performed at two sites. Procedures were both diagnostic and therapeutic in nature. Radiation dose structured reports (RDSR) were collected for each procedure and used to calculate indirect estimates of PSD which were compared to the measured PSD. Reference air kerma (Ka,r) was also compared to the measured PSD. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated for each metric andmore » metrics were compared to measured PSD using a two-tailed t-test. Data were log transformed prior to statistical analysis. Results: Both Ka,r and the calculated PSD were closely correlated with measured PSD at each sites (Ka,r: 0.92 and 0.86, indirect PSD: 0.91 and 0.88). At one site, neither Ka,r nor indirect PSD was significantly different from the measured PSD (p = 0.22 and p=0.054, respectively), while at the second site both Ka,r and indirect PSD were significantly higher than measured PSD (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In almost all cases, both Ka,r and indirect PSD overestimated the true PSD. Conclusions: The use of a range of gantry angles and table positions, along with variation in procedural imaging requirements, limits the utility of indirect dose metrics for predicting PSD for interventional cardiology procedures. A. Kyle Jones and Alexander S. Pasciak are owners of Fluoroscopic Safety, LLC.« less
  • Purpose: We develop a method to generate time varying volumetric images (3D fluoroscopic images) using patient-specific motion models derived from four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4DCBCT). Methods: Motion models are derived by selecting one 4DCBCT phase as a reference image, and registering the remaining images to it. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) to create a reduced set of PCA eigenvectors that capture the majority of respiratory motion. 3D fluoroscopic images are generated by optimizing the weights of the PCA eigenvectors iteratively through comparison of measured cone-beam projections and simulated projections generated from the motionmore » model. This method was applied to images from five lung-cancer patients. The spatial accuracy of this method is evaluated by comparing landmark positions in the 3D fluoroscopic images to manually defined ground truth positions in the patient cone-beam projections. Results: 4DCBCT motion models were shown to accurately generate 3D fluoroscopic images when the patient cone-beam projections contained clearly visible structures moving with respiration (e.g., the diaphragm). When no moving anatomical structure was clearly visible in the projections, the 3D fluoroscopic images generated did not capture breathing deformations, and reverted to the reference image. For the subset of 3D fluoroscopic images generated from projections with visibly moving anatomy, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile were 1.6 mm and 3.1 mm respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic images can accurately capture respiratory deformations in a patient dataset, so long as the cone-beam projections used contain visible structures that move with respiration. For clinical implementation of 3D fluoroscopic imaging for treatment verification, an imaging field of view (FOV) that contains visible structures moving with respiration should be selected. If no other appropriate structures are visible, the images should include the diaphragm. This project was supported, in part, through a Master Research Agreement with Varian Medical Systems, Inc, Palo Alto, CA.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the distribution of backscattered radiation to the skin resulting from a non-uniform distribution of primary radiation through convolution with a backscatter point spread function (PSF). Methods: A backscatter PSF is determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a 1 mm primary beam incident on a 30 × 30 cm × 20 cm thick PMMA phantom using EGSnrc software. A primary profile is similarly obtained without the phantom and the difference from the total provides the backscatter profile. This scatter PSF characterizes the backscatter spread for a “point” primary interaction and can be convolved with the entrance primary dosemore » distribution to obtain the total entrance skin dose. The backscatter PSF was integrated into the skin dose tracking system (DTS), a graphical utility for displaying the color-coded skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. The backscatter convolution method was validated for the non-uniform beam resulting from the use of an ROI attenuator. The ROI attenuator is a copper sheet with about 20% primary transmission (0.7 mm thick) containing a circular aperture; this attenuator is placed in the beam to reduce dose in the periphery while maintaining full dose in the region of interest. The DTS calculated primary plus backscatter distribution is compared to that measured with GafChromic film and that calculated using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo software. Results: The PSF convolution method used in the DTS software was able to account for the spread of backscatter from the ROI region to the region under the attenuator. The skin dose distribution determined using DTS with the ROI attenuator was in good agreement with the distributions measured with Gafchromic film and determined by Monte Carlo simulation Conclusion: The PSF convolution technique provides an accurate alternative for entrance skin dose determination with non-uniform primary x-ray beams. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • Radiation dose monitoring solutions have opened up new opportunities for medical physicists to be more involved in modern clinical radiology practices. In particular, with the help of comprehensive radiation dose data, data-driven protocol management and informed case follow up are now feasible. Significant challenges remain however and the problems faced by medical physicists are highly heterogeneous. Imaging systems from multiple vendors and a wide range of vintages co-exist in the same department and employ data communication protocols that are not fully standardized or implemented making harmonization complex. Many different solutions for radiation dose monitoring have been implemented by imaging facilitiesmore » over the past few years. Such systems are based on commercial software, home-grown IT solutions, manual PACS data dumping, etc., and diverse pathways can be used to bring the data to impact clinical practice. The speakers will share their experiences with creating or tailoring radiation dose monitoring/management systems and procedures over the past few years, which vary significantly in design and scope. Topics to cover: (1) fluoroscopic dose monitoring and high radiation event handling from a large academic hospital; (2) dose monitoring and protocol optimization in pediatric radiology; and (3) development of a home-grown IT solution and dose data analysis framework. Learning Objectives: Describe the scope and range of radiation dose monitoring and protocol management in a modern radiology practice Review examples of data available from a variety of systems and how it managed and conveyed. Reflect on the role of the physicist in radiation dose awareness.« less