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Title: TU-D-209-02: A Backscatter Point Spread Function for Entrance Skin Dose Determination

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the distribution of backscattered radiation to the skin resulting from a non-uniform distribution of primary radiation through convolution with a backscatter point spread function (PSF). Methods: A backscatter PSF is determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a 1 mm primary beam incident on a 30 × 30 cm × 20 cm thick PMMA phantom using EGSnrc software. A primary profile is similarly obtained without the phantom and the difference from the total provides the backscatter profile. This scatter PSF characterizes the backscatter spread for a “point” primary interaction and can be convolved with the entrance primary dose distribution to obtain the total entrance skin dose. The backscatter PSF was integrated into the skin dose tracking system (DTS), a graphical utility for displaying the color-coded skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. The backscatter convolution method was validated for the non-uniform beam resulting from the use of an ROI attenuator. The ROI attenuator is a copper sheet with about 20% primary transmission (0.7 mm thick) containing a circular aperture; this attenuator is placed in the beam to reduce dose in the periphery while maintaining full dose in the region of interest.more » The DTS calculated primary plus backscatter distribution is compared to that measured with GafChromic film and that calculated using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo software. Results: The PSF convolution method used in the DTS software was able to account for the spread of backscatter from the ROI region to the region under the attenuator. The skin dose distribution determined using DTS with the ROI attenuator was in good agreement with the distributions measured with Gafchromic film and determined by Monte Carlo simulation Conclusion: The PSF convolution technique provides an accurate alternative for entrance skin dose determination with non-uniform primary x-ray beams. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653974
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BEAMS; COMPUTER CODES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; SKIN; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Shankar, A, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. TU-D-209-02: A Backscatter Point Spread Function for Entrance Skin Dose Determination. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957503.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Shankar, A, Rudin, S, & Bednarek, D. TU-D-209-02: A Backscatter Point Spread Function for Entrance Skin Dose Determination. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957503.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Shankar, A, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. 2016. "TU-D-209-02: A Backscatter Point Spread Function for Entrance Skin Dose Determination". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957503.
@article{osti_22653974,
title = {TU-D-209-02: A Backscatter Point Spread Function for Entrance Skin Dose Determination},
author = {Vijayan, S and Xiong, Z and Shankar, A and Rudin, S and Bednarek, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To determine the distribution of backscattered radiation to the skin resulting from a non-uniform distribution of primary radiation through convolution with a backscatter point spread function (PSF). Methods: A backscatter PSF is determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a 1 mm primary beam incident on a 30 × 30 cm × 20 cm thick PMMA phantom using EGSnrc software. A primary profile is similarly obtained without the phantom and the difference from the total provides the backscatter profile. This scatter PSF characterizes the backscatter spread for a “point” primary interaction and can be convolved with the entrance primary dose distribution to obtain the total entrance skin dose. The backscatter PSF was integrated into the skin dose tracking system (DTS), a graphical utility for displaying the color-coded skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during interventional fluoroscopic procedures. The backscatter convolution method was validated for the non-uniform beam resulting from the use of an ROI attenuator. The ROI attenuator is a copper sheet with about 20% primary transmission (0.7 mm thick) containing a circular aperture; this attenuator is placed in the beam to reduce dose in the periphery while maintaining full dose in the region of interest. The DTS calculated primary plus backscatter distribution is compared to that measured with GafChromic film and that calculated using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo software. Results: The PSF convolution method used in the DTS software was able to account for the spread of backscatter from the ROI region to the region under the attenuator. The skin dose distribution determined using DTS with the ROI attenuator was in good agreement with the distributions measured with Gafchromic film and determined by Monte Carlo simulation Conclusion: The PSF convolution technique provides an accurate alternative for entrance skin dose determination with non-uniform primary x-ray beams. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957503},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • We present the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from ≈20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of γ rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broadermore » than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of γ-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. Finally, we found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347–121.« less
  • The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader thanmore » the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.« less
  • Purpose: During radiological interventional procedures (RIP) the skin of a patient under examination may undergo a prolonged x-ray exposure, receiving a dose as high as 5 Gy in a single session. This paper describes the use of the OneDose{sup TM} cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors to determine the entrance skin dose (ESD) at selected points during RIP. Methods: At first, some dosimetric characteristics of the detector, such as reproducibility, linearity, and fading, have been investigated using a C-arc as a source of radiation. The reference setting (RS) was: 80 kV energy, 40 cm Multiplication-Sign 40 cm field ofmore » view (FOV), current-time product of 50 mAs and source to skin distance (SSD) of 50 cm. A calibrated PMX III solid state detector was used as the reference detector and Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} films have been used as an independent dosimetric system to test the entire procedure. A calibration factor for the RS and correction factors as functions of tube voltage and FOV size have been determined. Results: Reproducibility ranged from 4% at low doses (around 10 cGy as measured by the reference detector) to about 1% for high doses (around 2 Gy). The system response was found to be linear with respect to both dose measured with the PMX III and tube voltage. The fading test has shown that the maximum deviation from the optimal reading conditions (3 min after a single irradiation) was 9.1% corresponding to four irradiations in one hour read 3 min after the last exposure. The calibration factor in the RS has shown that the system response at the kV energy range is about four times larger than in the MV energy range. A fifth order and fourth order polynomial functions were found to provide correction factors for tube voltage and FOV size, respectively, in measurement settings different than the RS. ESDs measured with the system after applying the proper correction factors agreed within one standard deviation (SD) with the corresponding ESDs measured with the reference detector. The ESDs measured with Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} films were in agreement within one SD compared to the ESDs measured using the OneDose{sup TM} system, as well. The global uncertainty associated to the OneDose{sup TM} system established in our experiments, ranged from 7% to 10%, depending on the duration of the RIP due to fading. These values are much lower than the uncertainty commonly accepted for general diagnostic practices (20%) and of about the same size of the uncertainty recommended for practices with high risk of deterministic side effects (7%). Conclusions: The OneDose{sup TM} system has shown a high sensitivity in the kV energy range and has been found capable of measuring the entrance skin dose in RIP.« less
  • Purpose: To develop an automated methodology to estimate patient examination dose in digital radiography (DR) imaging using DICOM metadata as a quality assurance (QA) tool. Methods: Patient examination and demographical information were gathered from metadata analysis of DICOM header data. The x-ray system radiation output (i.e., air KERMA) was characterized for all filter combinations used for patient examinations. Average patient thicknesses were measured for head, chest, abdomen, knees, and hands using volumetric images from CT. Backscatter factors (BSFs) were calculated from examination kVp. Patient entrance skin air KERMA (ESAK) was calculated by (1) looking up examination technique factors taken frommore » DICOM header metadata (i.e., kVp and mA s) to derive an air KERMA (k{sub air}) value based on an x-ray characteristic radiation output curve; (2) scaling k{sub air} with a BSF value; and (3) correcting k{sub air} for patient thickness. Finally, patient entrance skin dose (ESD) was calculated by multiplying a mass–energy attenuation coefficient ratio by ESAK. Patient ESD calculations were computed for common DR examinations at our institution: dual view chest, anteroposterior (AP) abdomen, lateral (LAT) skull, dual view knee, and bone age (left hand only) examinations. Results: ESD was calculated for a total of 3794 patients; mean age was 11 ± 8 yr (range: 2 months to 55 yr). The mean ESD range was 0.19–0.42 mGy for dual view chest, 0.28–1.2 mGy for AP abdomen, 0.18–0.65 mGy for LAT view skull, 0.15–0.63 mGy for dual view knee, and 0.10–0.12 mGy for bone age (left hand) examinations. Conclusions: A methodology combining DICOM header metadata and basic x-ray tube characterization curves was demonstrated. In a regulatory era where patient dose reporting has become increasingly in demand, this methodology will allow a knowledgeable user the means to establish an automatable dose reporting program for DR and perform patient dose related QA testing for digital x-ray imaging.« less