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Title: TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers

Abstract

Purpose: In PET-guided adaptive radiotherapy (RT), changes in the metabolic activity at individual voxels cannot be derived until the duringtreatment CT images are appropriately registered to pre-treatment CT images. However, deformable image registration (DIR) usually does not preserve tumor volume. This may induce errors when comparing to the target. The aim of this study was to develop a DIR-integrated mechanical modeling technique to track radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images. Methods: Three patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with adaptive radiotherapy under RTOG 1106. Two PET/CT image sets were acquired 2 weeks before RT and 18 fractions after the start of treatment. DIR was performed to register the during-RT CT to the pre-RT CT using a B-spline algorithm and the resultant displacements in the region of tumor were remodeled using a hybrid finite element method (FEM). Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the during-RT PET/CT image sets and deformed using the 3D deformation vector fields generated by the CT-based registrations. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was calculated using the pre- and during–RT image set. The quality of the PET mapping was evaluated based on the constancy of the mapped MTV and landmark comparison. Results: The B-spline-based registrationsmore » changed MTVs by 7.3%, 4.6% and −5.9% for the 3 patients and the correspondent changes for the hybrid FEM method −2.9%, 1% and 6.3%, respectively. Landmark comparisons were used to evaluate the Rigid, B-Spline, and hybrid FEM registrations with the mean errors of 10.1 ± 1.6 mm, 4.4 ± 0.4 mm, and 3.6 ± 0.4 mm for three patients. The hybrid FEM method outperforms the B-Spline-only registration for patients with tumor regression Conclusion: The hybrid FEM modeling technique improves the B-Spline registrations in tumor regions. This technique may help compare metabolic activities between two PET/CT images with regressing tumors. The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the National Institutes of Health Grant.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3];  [1];
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center, Augusta GA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653959
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BASAL METABOLISM; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; HYBRIDIZATION; IMAGES; LUNGS; NEOPLASMS; PARTICLE TRACKS; PATIENTS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Sharifi, Hoda, Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, Zhang, Hong, Jin, Jian-Yyue, Kong, Feng-Ming, Chetty, Indrin J, and Zhong, Hualiang. TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957429.
Sharifi, Hoda, Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, Zhang, Hong, Jin, Jian-Yyue, Kong, Feng-Ming, Chetty, Indrin J, & Zhong, Hualiang. TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957429.
Sharifi, Hoda, Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, Zhang, Hong, Jin, Jian-Yyue, Kong, Feng-Ming, Chetty, Indrin J, and Zhong, Hualiang. 2016. "TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957429.
@article{osti_22653959,
title = {TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers},
author = {Sharifi, Hoda and Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI and Zhang, Hong and Jin, Jian-Yyue and Kong, Feng-Ming and Chetty, Indrin J and Zhong, Hualiang},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In PET-guided adaptive radiotherapy (RT), changes in the metabolic activity at individual voxels cannot be derived until the duringtreatment CT images are appropriately registered to pre-treatment CT images. However, deformable image registration (DIR) usually does not preserve tumor volume. This may induce errors when comparing to the target. The aim of this study was to develop a DIR-integrated mechanical modeling technique to track radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images. Methods: Three patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with adaptive radiotherapy under RTOG 1106. Two PET/CT image sets were acquired 2 weeks before RT and 18 fractions after the start of treatment. DIR was performed to register the during-RT CT to the pre-RT CT using a B-spline algorithm and the resultant displacements in the region of tumor were remodeled using a hybrid finite element method (FEM). Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the during-RT PET/CT image sets and deformed using the 3D deformation vector fields generated by the CT-based registrations. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was calculated using the pre- and during–RT image set. The quality of the PET mapping was evaluated based on the constancy of the mapped MTV and landmark comparison. Results: The B-spline-based registrations changed MTVs by 7.3%, 4.6% and −5.9% for the 3 patients and the correspondent changes for the hybrid FEM method −2.9%, 1% and 6.3%, respectively. Landmark comparisons were used to evaluate the Rigid, B-Spline, and hybrid FEM registrations with the mean errors of 10.1 ± 1.6 mm, 4.4 ± 0.4 mm, and 3.6 ± 0.4 mm for three patients. The hybrid FEM method outperforms the B-Spline-only registration for patients with tumor regression Conclusion: The hybrid FEM modeling technique improves the B-Spline registrations in tumor regions. This technique may help compare metabolic activities between two PET/CT images with regressing tumors. The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the National Institutes of Health Grant.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957429},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor localmore » control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients.« less
  • Purpose: In the light of tumor regression and normal tissue changes, dose distributions can deviate undesirably from what was planned. As a consequence, replanning is sometimes necessary during treatment to ensure continued tumor coverage or to avoid overdosing organs at risk (OARs). Proton plans are generally thought to be less robust than photon plans because of the proton beam’s higher sensitivity to changes in tissue composition, suggesting also a higher likely replanning rate due to tumor regression. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric deviations between forward-calculated double scattering (DS) proton plans with IMRT plans upon tumor regression,more » and assesses their impact on clinical replanning decisions. Methods: Ten consecutive locally advanced NSCLC patients whose tumors shrank > 50% in volume and who received four or more CT scans during radiotherapy were analyzed. All the patients received proton radiotherapy (6660 cGy, 180 cGy/fx). Dosimetric robustness during therapy was characterized by changes in the planning objective metrics as well as by point-by-point root-mean-squared differences for the entire PTV, ITV, and OARs (heart, cord, esophagus, brachial plexus and lungs) DVHs. Results: Sixty-four pairs of DVHs were reviewed by three clinicians, who requested a replanning rate of 16.7% and 18.6% for DS and IMRT plans, respectively, with a high agreement between providers. Robustness of clinical indicators was found to depend on the beam orientation and dose level on the DVH curve. Proton dose increased most in OARs distal to the PTV along the beam path, but these changes were primarily in the mid to low dose levels. In contrast, the variation in IMRT plans occurred primarily in the high dose region. Conclusion: Robustness of clinical indicators depends where on the DVH curves comparisons are made. Similar replanning rates were observed for DS and IMRT plans upon large tumor regression.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the ability of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-derived ventilation images to identify regions of highly functional lung for avoidance in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: The treatment-planning records from 21 patients with Stage III NSCLC were selected. Ventilation images were generated from the 4D-CT sets, and each was imported into the treatment-planning system. Ninetieth percentile functional volumes (PFV90), constituting the 10% of the lung volume where the highest ventilation occurs, were generated. Baseline IMRT plans were generated using the lung volume constraint on V20 (<35%), and two additional plansmore » were generated using constraints on the PFV90 without a volume constraint. Dose-volume and dose-function histograms (DVH, DFH) were generated and used to evaluate the planning target volume coverage, lung volume, and functional parameters for comparison of the plans. Results: The mean dose to the PFV90 was reduced by 2.9 Gy, and the DFH at 5 Gy (F5) was reduced by 9.6% (SE = 2.03%). The F5, F10, V5, and V10 were all significantly reduced from the baseline values. We identified a favorable subset of patients for whom there was a further significant improvement in the mean lung dose. Conclusions: Four-dimensional computed tomography-derived ventilation regions were successfully used as avoidance structures to reduce the DVH and DFH at 5 Gy in all cases. In a subset, there was also a reduction in the F10 and V10 without a change in the V20, suggesting that this technique could be safely used.« less
  • Purpose: To quantify the impact that changes in tumor volume after induction chemotherapy have on radiotherapy treatment planning for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of coregistered pre- and postchemotherapy tumor volumes in a Phase II study of induction chemotherapy delivered before radical radiotherapy. Results: Using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors measurement, 35% of patients had a partial response and 62% had stable disease after chemotherapy. Conversely, volumetric decreases in tumor size were seen in 95% of patients. Mean decreases in gross tumor volume and planning target volume were 37% and 26%, respectively. Usingmore » the smaller postchemotherapy tumor volume to plan radiotherapy treatment leads to a mean decrease in volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or greater of 3% (p < 0.005). Targeting the postchemotherapy volume also results in the delivery of a significant, although inhomogeneous, incidental dose of radiation to the rind of tissue formed around the shrinking tumor. Disease shrinkage is anisotropic, with greater displacements observed along anterior, posterior, and lateral margins. After chemotherapy, there is measurable blurring of the tumor's radiologic edge. Conclusions: Modest decreases in tumor volume that are not reflected by the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors measurement occur in most patients. Although targeting the postchemotherapy tumor may decrease lung toxicity, the magnitude of the benefit is small. Because this strategy runs the risk of increasing the marginal recurrence rate, it should be used with caution. Quantification of tumor shrinkage and margin blurring permits more accurate reconstruction of the prechemotherapy target volume.« less
  • Purpose: This Phase I/II trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of PR-350, a novel hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, when administered with thoracic radiation therapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (CT) for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Two cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2}) and paclitaxel (180 mg/m{sup 2}), or carboplatin (AUC = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m{sup 2}) were given before RT of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. In the Phase I portion, the starting dosage of PR-350 was 10 daily administrations (2000 mg/m{sup 2}) in combination with RT, and this number was increased inmore » increments of 10 for successive groups to 30 doses. Results: In total, 37 patients were enrolled. In Phase I (n = 20), PR-350 could be administered 30 times with concurrent thoracic RT. Thus, in Phase II (n = 17), PR-350 was administered 30 times. The major toxicity was radiation pneumonitis, with Grade 3 or more pneumonitis noted in 6 patients (16%) including 2 with treatment-related deaths. However, no Grade 3 or more esophageal toxicity was noted, and only Grade 1 peripheral neuropathy was noted in 9 patients (24%). For all 37 patients, the median survival time (MST) and the 2-year survival rate were 15.9 months and 24%, respectively. For 18 patients receiving 21 to 30 doses of PR-350, the MST and 2-year survival rate were 20.9 months and 33%, respectively. Conclusions: Thoracic RT combined with 30 daily administrations of PR-350 after induction CT was well tolerated and promising for locally advanced NSCLC.« less