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Title: MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-03: Calculation of Proton Pencil Beam Properties with Full Beamline Model in TOPAS

Abstract

Purpose: Introducing Monte Carlo based dose calculation algorithms into proton therapy planning systems (TPS) leads to improved accuracy. However accurate modelling of the proton pencil beam impinging the patient is necessary. Current approaches rely on measurement-driven reconstruction of phase-space and spectrum properties, typically constrained to analytical model functions. In this study a detailed Monte Carlo model of the complete cyclotron-based delivery system was created with the aim of providing more representative beam properties at treatment position. Methods: A model of the Varian Probeam proton system from the cyclotron exit to isocenter was constructed in the TOPAS Monte Carlo framework. The beam evolution through apertures and magnetic elements was validated using Transport/Turtle calculations and additionally against measurements from the Probeam™ system at Scripps Proton Therapy Center (SPTC) in San Diego, CA. A voxelized water phantom at isocenter allowed for comparison of the dose-depth curve from the Probeam model with that of a corresponding Gaussian beam over the entire energy range (70–240 MeV). Measurements of relative beam fluence cross-profiles and depth-dose curves at and around isocenter were also compared to the MC results. Results: The simulated TOPAS beam envelope was found to agree with both the Transport/Turtle and measurements to within 5%more » for most of the beamline. The MC predicted energy spectrum at isocenter was found to deviate increasingly from Gaussian at energies below 160 MeV. The corresponding effects on the depth dose curve agreed well with measurements. Conclusion: Given the flexibility of TOPAS and available details of the delivery system, an accurate characterization of a proton pencil beam at isocenter is possible. Incorporation of the MC derived properties of the proton pencil beam can eliminate analytical approximations and ultimately increase treatment plan accuracy and quality. Both authors are employees of Varian Medical Systems.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Varian Medical Systems Particle Therapy, Troisdorf, NRW (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653920
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; ENERGY SPECTRA; MEV RANGE 100-1000; MEV RANGE 10-100; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHASE SPACE; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Wulff, J, and Abel, E. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-03: Calculation of Proton Pencil Beam Properties with Full Beamline Model in TOPAS. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957383.
Wulff, J, & Abel, E. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-03: Calculation of Proton Pencil Beam Properties with Full Beamline Model in TOPAS. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957383.
Wulff, J, and Abel, E. 2016. "MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-03: Calculation of Proton Pencil Beam Properties with Full Beamline Model in TOPAS". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957383.
@article{osti_22653920,
title = {MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP3-03: Calculation of Proton Pencil Beam Properties with Full Beamline Model in TOPAS},
author = {Wulff, J and Abel, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Introducing Monte Carlo based dose calculation algorithms into proton therapy planning systems (TPS) leads to improved accuracy. However accurate modelling of the proton pencil beam impinging the patient is necessary. Current approaches rely on measurement-driven reconstruction of phase-space and spectrum properties, typically constrained to analytical model functions. In this study a detailed Monte Carlo model of the complete cyclotron-based delivery system was created with the aim of providing more representative beam properties at treatment position. Methods: A model of the Varian Probeam proton system from the cyclotron exit to isocenter was constructed in the TOPAS Monte Carlo framework. The beam evolution through apertures and magnetic elements was validated using Transport/Turtle calculations and additionally against measurements from the Probeam™ system at Scripps Proton Therapy Center (SPTC) in San Diego, CA. A voxelized water phantom at isocenter allowed for comparison of the dose-depth curve from the Probeam model with that of a corresponding Gaussian beam over the entire energy range (70–240 MeV). Measurements of relative beam fluence cross-profiles and depth-dose curves at and around isocenter were also compared to the MC results. Results: The simulated TOPAS beam envelope was found to agree with both the Transport/Turtle and measurements to within 5% for most of the beamline. The MC predicted energy spectrum at isocenter was found to deviate increasingly from Gaussian at energies below 160 MeV. The corresponding effects on the depth dose curve agreed well with measurements. Conclusion: Given the flexibility of TOPAS and available details of the delivery system, an accurate characterization of a proton pencil beam at isocenter is possible. Incorporation of the MC derived properties of the proton pencil beam can eliminate analytical approximations and ultimately increase treatment plan accuracy and quality. Both authors are employees of Varian Medical Systems.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957383},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Validate implementation of a published RBE model for DSB induction (RBEDSB) in several general purpose Monte Carlo (MC) code systems and the RayStation™ treatment planning system (TPS). For protons and other light ions, DSB induction is a critical initiating molecular event that correlates well with the RBE for cell survival. Methods: An efficient algorithm to incorporate information on proton and light ion RBEDSB from the independently tested Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) has now been integrated into MCNP (Stewart et al. PMB 60, 8249–8274, 2015), FLUKA, TOPAS and a research build of the RayStation™ TPS. To cross-validate the RBEDSBmore » model implementation LET distributions, depth-dose and lateral (dose and RBEDSB) profiles for monodirectional monoenergetic (100 to 200 MeV) protons incident on a water phantom are compared. The effects of recoil and secondary ion production ({sub 2}H{sub +}, {sub 3}H{sub +}, {sub 3}He{sub 2+}, {sub 4}He{sub 2+}), spot size (3 and 10 mm), and transport physics on beam profiles and RBEDSB are examined. Results: Depth-dose and RBEDSB profiles among all of the MC models are in excellent agreement using a 1 mm distance criterion (width of a voxel). For a 100 MeV proton beam (10 mm spot), RBEDSB = 1.2 ± 0.03 (− 2–3%) at the tip of the Bragg peak and increases to 1.59 ± 0.3 two mm distal to the Bragg peak. RBEDSB tends to decrease as the kinetic energy of the incident proton increases. Conclusion: The model for proton RBEDSB has been accurately implemented into FLUKA, MCNP, TOPAS and the RayStation™TPS. The transport of secondary light ions (Z > 1) has a significant impact on RBEDSB, especially distal to the Bragg peak, although light ions have a small effect on (dosexRBEDSB) profiles. The ability to incorporate spatial variations in proton RBE within a TPS creates new opportunities to individualize treatment plans and increase the therapeutic ratio. Dr. Erik Traneus is employed full-time as a Research Scientist at RaySearch Laboratories. The research build of the RayStation used in the study was made available to the University of Washington free of charge. RaySearch Laboratories did not provide any monetary support for the reported studies.« less
  • Purpose: Monte Carlo method can provide the most accurate dose calculation for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy if the proton sources and particle interaction mechanisms are correct. Methods: TOPAS 1.8, a simulation tool based on Geant4.9.6, was utilized to simulate proton spot profiles. Proton sources, placed at the phantom surface, were modelled with three two-dimensional Gaussian functions to fit measured in-air spot profiles up to 100 mm radius. Simulations were compared with profiles measured using EBT3 film in Solidwater phantoms at various depths from the surface to the end of range for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225more » MeV proton beams with phantom surface locations at 270 mm upstream and at isocentre. Results: Simulation can reproduce one-dimensional integral dose versus radius within 1 mm/1% and two-dimensional profiles within 1 mm out to 0.1% of the central spot dose for all the studied depths of all energies. For two-dimensional 0.01% isodose, simulation can reproduce all 210 MeV proton beam measurements, but cannot predict the diamond-shaped isodose distributions of the 115 MeV beam. When the proton spots are scanned 100 mm off axis, no profile difference can be found between the central axis and the off axis locations for the 210 MeV beam. For the 115 MeV beam, differences of up to 2 mm are observed at the ends of the diamond-shaped 0.01% isodose contour, implying there are lower energy components in the energy spectrum which are less than 4% of the primary energy. Subsequent simulation demonstrates that adopting such an energy spectrum within the source model can improve the distance agreement by 5–6 mm for isodoses below 0.1% near the end of range of the 115 MeV proton beam. Conclusion: Excellent agreement between simulation and measurement validates our PBS source model and the particle interaction mechanism embedded in TOPAS.« less
  • Purpose: The shift in mean position of a moving tumor also known as “baseline shift”, has been modeled, in order to automatically generate uncertainty scenarios for the assessment and robust optimization of proton therapy treatments in lung cancer. Methods: An average CT scan and a Mid-Position CT scan (MidPCT) of the patient at the planning time are first generated from a 4D-CT data. The mean position of the tumor along the breathing cycle is represented by the GTV contour in the MidPCT. Several studies reported both systematic and random variations of the mean tumor position from fraction to fraction. Ourmore » model can simulate this baseline shift by generating a local deformation field that moves the tumor on all phases of the 4D-CT, without creating any non-physical artifact. The deformation field is comprised of normal and tangential components with respect to the lung wall in order to allow the tumor to slip within the lung instead of deforming the lung surface. The deformation field is eventually smoothed in order to enforce its continuity. Two 4D-CT series acquired at 1 week of interval were used to validate the model. Results: Based on the first 4D-CT set, the model was able to generate a third 4D-CT that reproduced the 5.8 mm baseline-shift measured in the second 4D-CT. Water equivalent thickness (WET) of the voxels have been computed for the 3 average CTs. The root mean square deviation of the WET in the GTV is 0.34 mm between week 1 and week 2, and 0.08 mm between the simulated data and week 2. Conclusion: Our model can be used to automatically generate uncertainty scenarios for robustness analysis of a proton therapy plan. The generated scenarios can also feed a TPS equipped with a robust optimizer. Kevin Souris, Ana Barragan, and Dario Di Perri are financially supported by Televie Grants from F.R.S.-FNRS.« less
  • Purpose: Proton therapy aims to deliver a high dose in a well-defined target volume while sparing the healthy surrounding tissues thanks to their inherent depth dose characteristic (Bragg peak). In proton therapy, several techniques can be used to deliver the dose into the target volume. The one that allows the best conformity with the tumor, is called PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning). The measurement of the proton pencil beam spot profile (spot size) and position is very important for the accurate delivery of dose to the target volume with a good conformity. Methods: We have developed a fine segmented detector arraymore » to monitor the PBS. A prototype beam monitor using Cherenkov radiation in clear plastic optical fibers (cPOF) has been developed for continuous display of the pencil beam status during the therapeutic proton Pencil Beam Scanning mode operation. The benefit of using Cherenkov radiation is that the optical output is linear to the dose. Pedestal substraction and the gain adjustment between channels are performed. Spot profiles of various pencil beam energies(100 MeV to 226 MeV) are measured. Two dimensional gaussian fit is used to analyze the beam width and the spot center. The results are compared with that of Lynx(Scintillator-based sensor with CCD camera) and EBT3 Film. Results: The measured gaussian widths using fiber array system changes from 13 to 5 mm for the beam energies from 100 to 226 MeV. The results agree well with Lynx and Film within the systematic error. Conclusion: The results demonstrate good monitoring capability of the system. Not only measuing the spot profile but also monitoring dose map by accumulating each spot measurement is available. The x-y monitoing system with 128 channel readout will be mounted to the snout for the in-situ real time monitoring.« less
  • Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulatedmore » proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a production of MGS Research, Inc.« less