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Title: MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study

Abstract

Purpose: An unpredictable movement of a patient can occur during SBRT even when immobilization devices are applied. In the SBRT treatments using a conventional linear accelerator detection of such movements relies heavily on human interaction and monitoring. This study aims to detect such positional abnormalities in real-time by assessing intra-fractional gantry mounted kV projection images of a patient’s spine. Methods: We propose a self-CBCT image based spine tracking method consisting of the following steps: (1)Acquire a pre-treatment CBCT image; (2)Transform the CBCT volume according to the couch correction; (3)Acquire kV projections during treatment beam delivery; (4)Simultaneously with each acquisition generate a DRR from the CBCT volume based-on the current projection geometry; (5)Perform an intensity gradient-based 2D registration between spine ROI images of the projection and the DRR images; (6)Report an alarm if the detected 2D displacement is beyond a threshold value. To demonstrate the feasibility, retrospective simulations were performed on 1,896 projections from nine CBCT sessions of three patients who received lung SBRT. The unpredictable movements were simulated by applying random rotations and translations to the reference CBCT prior to each DRR generation. As the ground truth, the 3D translations and/or rotations causing >3 mm displacement of the midpoint ofmore » the thoracic spine were regarded as abnormal. In the measurements, different threshold values of 2D displacement were tested to investigate sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method. Results: A linear relationship between the ground truth 3D displacement and the detected 2D displacement was observed (R{sup 2} = 0.44). When the 2D displacement threshold was set to 3.6 mm the overall sensitivity and specificity were 77.7±5.7% and 77.9±3.5% respectively. Conclusion: In this simulation study, it was demonstrated that intrafractional kV projections from an on-board CBCT system have a potential to detect unpredictable patient movement during SBRT. This research is funded by Interfractional Imaging Research Grant from Elekta.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653915
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; EQUIPMENT; GROUND TRUTH MEASUREMENTS; IMAGES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PATIENTS; SIMULATION; VERTEBRAE

Citation Formats

Park, Y, Sharp, G, and Winey, B. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957378.
Park, Y, Sharp, G, & Winey, B. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957378.
Park, Y, Sharp, G, and Winey, B. 2016. "MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957378.
@article{osti_22653915,
title = {MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study},
author = {Park, Y and Sharp, G and Winey, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: An unpredictable movement of a patient can occur during SBRT even when immobilization devices are applied. In the SBRT treatments using a conventional linear accelerator detection of such movements relies heavily on human interaction and monitoring. This study aims to detect such positional abnormalities in real-time by assessing intra-fractional gantry mounted kV projection images of a patient’s spine. Methods: We propose a self-CBCT image based spine tracking method consisting of the following steps: (1)Acquire a pre-treatment CBCT image; (2)Transform the CBCT volume according to the couch correction; (3)Acquire kV projections during treatment beam delivery; (4)Simultaneously with each acquisition generate a DRR from the CBCT volume based-on the current projection geometry; (5)Perform an intensity gradient-based 2D registration between spine ROI images of the projection and the DRR images; (6)Report an alarm if the detected 2D displacement is beyond a threshold value. To demonstrate the feasibility, retrospective simulations were performed on 1,896 projections from nine CBCT sessions of three patients who received lung SBRT. The unpredictable movements were simulated by applying random rotations and translations to the reference CBCT prior to each DRR generation. As the ground truth, the 3D translations and/or rotations causing >3 mm displacement of the midpoint of the thoracic spine were regarded as abnormal. In the measurements, different threshold values of 2D displacement were tested to investigate sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method. Results: A linear relationship between the ground truth 3D displacement and the detected 2D displacement was observed (R{sup 2} = 0.44). When the 2D displacement threshold was set to 3.6 mm the overall sensitivity and specificity were 77.7±5.7% and 77.9±3.5% respectively. Conclusion: In this simulation study, it was demonstrated that intrafractional kV projections from an on-board CBCT system have a potential to detect unpredictable patient movement during SBRT. This research is funded by Interfractional Imaging Research Grant from Elekta.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957378},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Liver SBRT patients unable to tolerate breath-hold for radiotherapy are treated free-breathing with image guidance. Target localization using 3D CBCT requires extra margins to accommodate the respiratory motion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of 4D CT-on-rails in target localization for free-breathing liver SBRT. Methods: A Siemens SOMATOM CT-on-Rails 4D with Anzai Pressure Belt system was used both as the simulation and the localization CT. Fiducial marker was placed close to the center of the target prior to the simulation. Amplitude based sorting was used in the scan. Eight or sixteen phases ofmore » reconstructed CT sets (depends on breathing pattern) can be sent to Velocity to create the maximum intensity projection (MIP) image set. Target ITV and fiducial ITV were drawn based on the MIP image. In patient localization, a 4D scan was taken with the same settings as the sim scan. Images were registered to match fiducial ITVs. Results: Ten liver cancer patients treated for 50Gy over 5 fractions, with amplitudes of breathing motion ranging from 4.3–14.5 mm, were analyzed in this study. Results show that the Intra & inter fraction variability in liver motion amplitude significantly less than the baseline inter-fraction shifts in liver position. 90% of amplitude change is less than 3 mm. The differences in the D99 and D95 GTV dose coverage between the 4D CT-on-Rails and the CBCT plan were small (within 5%) for all the selected cases. However, the average PTV volume by using the 4D CT-on-Rails is 37% less than the CBCT PTV volume. Conclusion: Simulation and Registration using 4D CT-on-Rails provides accurate target localization and is unaffected by larger breathing amplitudes as seen with 3D CBCT image registration. Localization with 4D CT-on-Rails can significantly reduce the PTV volume with sufficient tumor.« less
  • Purpose: EPID-based patient-specific quality assurance provides verification of the planning setup and delivery process that phantomless QA and log-file based virtual dosimetry methods cannot achieve. We present a method for EPID-based QA utilizing spatially-variant EPID response kernels that allows for direct calculation of the entrance fluence and 3D phantom dose. Methods: An EPID dosimetry system was utilized for 3D dose reconstruction in a cylindrical phantom for the purposes of end-to-end QA. Monte Carlo (MC) methods were used to generate pixel-specific point-spread functions (PSFs) characterizing the spatially non-uniform EPID portal response in the presence of phantom scatter. The spatially-variant PSFs weremore » decomposed into spatially-invariant basis PSFs with the symmetric central-axis kernel as the primary basis kernel and off-axis representing orthogonal perturbations in pixel-space. This compact and accurate characterization enables the use of a modified Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to directly reconstruct entrance fluence from EPID images without iterative scatter subtraction. High-resolution phantom dose kernels were cogenerated in MC with the PSFs enabling direct recalculation of the resulting phantom dose by rapid forward convolution once the entrance fluence was calculated. A Delta4 QA phantom was used to validate the dose reconstructed in this approach. Results: The spatially-invariant representation of the EPID response accurately reproduced the entrance fluence with >99.5% fidelity with a simultaneous reduction of >60% in computational overhead. 3D dose for 10{sub 6} voxels was reconstructed for the entire phantom geometry. A 3D global gamma analysis demonstrated a >95% pass rate at 3%/3mm. Conclusion: Our approach demonstrates the capabilities of an EPID-based end-to-end QA methodology that is more efficient than traditional EPID dosimetry methods. Displacing the point of measurement external to the QA phantom reduces the necessary complexity of the phantom itself while offering a method that is highly scalable and inherently generalizable to rotational and trajectory based deliveries. This research was partially supported by Varian.« less
  • The goal of this work was to use daily kV-kV imaging and weekly cone-beam CT (CBCT) to evaluate rectal cancer patient position when treated on a new couch top belly board (BB). Quality assurance (QA) of the imaging system was conducted weekly to ensure proper performance. The positional uncertainty of the combined kV-kV image match and subsequent couch move was found to be no more than {+-} 1.0 mm. The average (1 SD) CBCT QA phantom match was anterior-posterior (AP) = -0.8 {+-} 0.2 mm, superior-inferior (SI) = 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm, and left-right (LR) = -0.1 {+-} 0.1 mm.more » For treatment, a set of orthogonal kV-kV images were taken and a bony anatomy match performed online. Moves were made along each axis (AP, SI, and LR) and recorded for analysis. CBCT data were acquired once every 5 fractions for a total of 5 images per patient. The images were all taken after the couch move but before treatment. A 3-dimensional (3D-3D) bony anatomy auto-match was performed offline and the residual difference in position recorded for analysis. The average ({+-} 1 SD) move required from skin marks, calculated over all 375 fractions (15 patients Multiplication-Sign 25 fractions/patient), were AP = -2.6 {+-} 3.7 mm, SI = -0.3 {+-} 4.9 mm, and LR = 1.8 {+-} 4.5 mm. The average residual difference in patient position calculated from the weekly CBCT data (75 total) were AP = -1.7 {+-} 0.4 mm, SI = 1.1 {+-} 0.6 mm, and LR = -0.5 {+-} 0.2 mm. These results show that the BB does provide simple patient positioning that is accurate to within {+-} 2.0 mm when using online orthogonal kV-kV image matching of the pelvic bony anatomy.« less
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