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Title: MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams

Abstract

Purpose: To develop new ionization chamber dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using a beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for Co-60 to kV x-ray and an ionization conversion factor for a water-substitute plastic phantom. Methods: kQ was calculated for aluminum half value-layers (Al-HVLs) of 1.5 mm to 8 mm which were generated by kV x-ray beams of 50 to 120 kVp. Twenty-two energy spectra for ten effective energies (Eeff) were calculated by a SpecCalc program. Depth doses in water were calculated at 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields. Output factors were also obtained from the dose ratio for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field. kQ was obtained for a PTW30013 Former ion chamber. In addition, an ionization conversion factor of the PWDT phantom to water was calculated. All calculations were performed with EGSnrc/cavity code and egs-chamber codes. Results: The x-ray beam energies for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs ranged in Eeff of 25.7 to 54.3 keV. kQ for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs were 0.831 to 0.897, at 1 and 2 cm depths for a 10 × 10 cm2 field. Similarly, output factors for 5 × 5more » to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields were 0.937 to 1.033 for 25.7 keV and 0.857 to 1.168 for 54.3 keV. The depth dose in a PWDT phantom decreased up to 5% compared to that in water at depth of ten percent of maximum dose for 1.5 mm Al-HVL. The ionization ratios of water/PWDT phantoms for the PTW30013 chamber were 1.012 to 1.007 for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs at 1 cm depth. Conclusion: It became possible to directly measure the absorbed dose to water with the ionization chamber in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using kQ and the PWDT phantom.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
  2. Kumamota University, Kumamoto (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653887
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; BEAMS; COBALT 60; CONVERSION; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; ENERGY SPECTRA; ION DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; KEV RANGE 10-100; PHANTOMS; WATER; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Araki, F, and Ohno, T. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957337.
Araki, F, & Ohno, T. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957337.
Araki, F, and Ohno, T. 2016. "MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957337.
@article{osti_22653887,
title = {MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: New Ionization Chamber Dosimetry of Absorbed Dose to Water in Diagnostic KV X-Ray Beams},
author = {Araki, F and Ohno, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop new ionization chamber dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using a beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for Co-60 to kV x-ray and an ionization conversion factor for a water-substitute plastic phantom. Methods: kQ was calculated for aluminum half value-layers (Al-HVLs) of 1.5 mm to 8 mm which were generated by kV x-ray beams of 50 to 120 kVp. Twenty-two energy spectra for ten effective energies (Eeff) were calculated by a SpecCalc program. Depth doses in water were calculated at 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields. Output factors were also obtained from the dose ratio for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field. kQ was obtained for a PTW30013 Former ion chamber. In addition, an ionization conversion factor of the PWDT phantom to water was calculated. All calculations were performed with EGSnrc/cavity code and egs-chamber codes. Results: The x-ray beam energies for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs ranged in Eeff of 25.7 to 54.3 keV. kQ for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs were 0.831 to 0.897, at 1 and 2 cm depths for a 10 × 10 cm2 field. Similarly, output factors for 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields were 0.937 to 1.033 for 25.7 keV and 0.857 to 1.168 for 54.3 keV. The depth dose in a PWDT phantom decreased up to 5% compared to that in water at depth of ten percent of maximum dose for 1.5 mm Al-HVL. The ionization ratios of water/PWDT phantoms for the PTW30013 chamber were 1.012 to 1.007 for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs at 1 cm depth. Conclusion: It became possible to directly measure the absorbed dose to water with the ionization chamber in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using kQ and the PWDT phantom.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957337},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Absorbed dose beam quality conversion factors (k{sub Q} factors) were obtained for 27 different types of ionization chamber. The aim was to obtain objective evidence on the performance of a wide range of chambers currently available, and potentially used for reference dosimetry, and to investigate the accuracy of the k{sub Q} calculation algorithm used in the TG-51 protocol. Methods: Measurements were made using the {sup 60}Co irradiator and Elekta Precise linac facilities at the National Research Council of Canada. The objective was to characterize the chambers over the range of energies applicable to TG-51 and determine whether each chambermore » met the requirements of a reference-class instrument. Chamber settling, leakage current, ion recombination and polarity, and waterproofing sleeve effects were investigated, and absorbed dose calibration coefficients were obtained for {sup 60}Co and 6, 10, and 25 MV photon beams. Only thimble-type chambers were considered in this investigation and were classified into three groups: (i) Reference chambers (''standard''0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer-type chambers and their derivatives traditionally used for beam output calibration); (ii) scanning chambers (typically 0.1 cm{sup 3} volume chambers used for beam commissioning with 3-D scanning phantoms); and (iii) microchambers (very small volume ion chambers ({<=}0.01 cm{sup 3}) used for small field dosimetry). Results: As might be expected, 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chambers showed the most predictable performance and experimental k{sub Q} factors were obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.1%. The performance of scanning and microchambers was somewhat variable. Some chambers showed very good behavior but others showed anomalous polarity and recombination corrections that are not fully explained at present. For the well-behaved chambers, agreement between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors was within 0.4%; for some chambers, differences of more than 1% were seen that may be related to the recombination/polarity results. Use of such chambers could result in significant errors in the determination of reference dose in the clinic. Conclusions: Based on the experimental evidence obtained here, specification for a reference-class ionization chamber could be developed that would minimize the error in using a dosimetry protocol with calculated beam quality conversion factors. The experimental k{sub Q} data obtained here for a wide range of thimble chambers can be used when choosing suitable detectors for reference dosimetry and are intended to be used in the upcoming update/addendum to the AAPM TG-51 dosimetry protocol.« less
  • Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. Allmore » results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Purpose: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. Methods: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor. Similarly, Ka is determined by M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)ka, where (kglob)ka the in-phantom Ka correction factor. Two thimblemore » ICs PTW30013 and another PTW30016 having a ND,w,60Co from the German primary standard laboratory (PTB) were simultaneously exposed to the microselectron 192Ir v2 source at 8cm in a PMMA phantom. A reference well chamber (PTW33004) with a PTB transfer Ka calibration Nka was used for comparing the in-phantom measurements to derive the experimental (kglob)ka factors. We determined the experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 by comparing the PTW30016 measurements with MC-calculated (kglob)Dw1. Results: Ka results of the PTW30016 based on ND,w,60Co and MC-calculated (kglob)ka differ from the well chamber results based on Nka by 1.6% and from the manufacturer by 1.0%. Experimental (kglob)ka factors for the PTW30016 and two other PTW30013 are 0.00683, 0.00681 and 0.00679, and vary <0.5% with 1mm source positioning uncertainty. Experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 ICs are 75.3 and 75.6, and differ by 1.6% from the conversion by dose rate constant from the AAPM report 229. Conclusion: The 1.7% difference between MC and experimental (kglob)ka for the PTW30016 IC is within the PTB 2.5% expanded uncertainty in Ka calibration standard. Using a single IC with ND,w,60Co to calibrate the brachytherapy source and dose output in external radiotherapy is feasible. MC validation of the PTW30013(kglob)Dw1 is warranted.« less