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Title: MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System

Abstract

Purpose: The functionality of the Dose-Tracking System (DTS) has been expanded to include the calculation of the Kerma-Area Product (KAP) for non-uniform x-ray fields such as result from the use of compensation filters during fluoroscopic procedures Methods: The DTS calculates skin dose during fluoroscopic interventions and provides a color-coded dose map on a patient-graphic model. The KAP is the integral of air kerma over the x-ray field and is usually measured with a transmission-ionization chamber that intercepts the entire x-ray beam. The DTS has been modified to determine KAP when there are beam non-uniformities that can be modeled. For example, the DTS includes models of the three compensation filters with tapered edges located in the collimator assembly of the Toshiba Infinix fluoroscopic C-Arm and can track their movement. To determine the air kerma after the filters, DTS includes transmission factors for the compensation filters as a function of kVp and beam filtration. A virtual KAP dosimeter is simulated in the DTS by an array of graphic vertices; the air kerma at each vertex is corrected by the field non-uniformity, which in this case is the attenuation factor for those rays which pass through the filter. The products of individual vertexmore » air-kerma values for all vertices within the beam times the effective-area-per-vertex are summed for each x-ray pulse to yield the KAP per pulse and the cumulative KAP for the procedure is then calculated. Results: The KAP values estimated by DTS with the compensation filter inserted into the x-ray field agree within ± 6% with the values displayed on the fluoroscopy unit monitor, which are measured with a transmission chamber. Conclusion: The DTS can account for field non-uniformities such as result from the use of compensation filters in calculating KAP and can obviate the need for a KAP transmission ionization chamber. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AIR FILTERS; BEAMS; DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; KERMA; PARTICLE TRACKS; RADIATION DOSES; SIMULATION; SKIN; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, & Bednarek, D. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. 2016. "MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
@article{osti_22653886,
title = {MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System},
author = {Vijayan, S and Xiong, Z and Rudin, S and Bednarek, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The functionality of the Dose-Tracking System (DTS) has been expanded to include the calculation of the Kerma-Area Product (KAP) for non-uniform x-ray fields such as result from the use of compensation filters during fluoroscopic procedures Methods: The DTS calculates skin dose during fluoroscopic interventions and provides a color-coded dose map on a patient-graphic model. The KAP is the integral of air kerma over the x-ray field and is usually measured with a transmission-ionization chamber that intercepts the entire x-ray beam. The DTS has been modified to determine KAP when there are beam non-uniformities that can be modeled. For example, the DTS includes models of the three compensation filters with tapered edges located in the collimator assembly of the Toshiba Infinix fluoroscopic C-Arm and can track their movement. To determine the air kerma after the filters, DTS includes transmission factors for the compensation filters as a function of kVp and beam filtration. A virtual KAP dosimeter is simulated in the DTS by an array of graphic vertices; the air kerma at each vertex is corrected by the field non-uniformity, which in this case is the attenuation factor for those rays which pass through the filter. The products of individual vertex air-kerma values for all vertices within the beam times the effective-area-per-vertex are summed for each x-ray pulse to yield the KAP per pulse and the cumulative KAP for the procedure is then calculated. Results: The KAP values estimated by DTS with the compensation filter inserted into the x-ray field agree within ± 6% with the values displayed on the fluoroscopy unit monitor, which are measured with a transmission chamber. Conclusion: The DTS can account for field non-uniformities such as result from the use of compensation filters in calculating KAP and can obviate the need for a KAP transmission ionization chamber. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957336},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groupsmore » were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an analytic framework to estimate patients’ absorbed dose distribution owing to daily cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Methods: To compute total absorbed dose distribution, we separated the framework into primary and scattered dose calculations. Using the source parameters such as voltage, current, and bowtie filtration, for the primary dose calculation, we simulated the forward projection from the source to each voxel of an imaging object including some inhomogeneous inserts. Then we calculated the primary absorbed dose at each voxel based on the absorption probability deduced from the HU values and Beer’s law.more » In sequence, all voxels constructing the phantom were regarded as secondary sources to radiate scattered photons for scattered dose calculation. Details of forward projection were identical to that of the previous step. The secondary source intensities were given by using scatter-to- primary ratios provided by NIST. In addition, we compared the analytically calculated dose distribution with their Monte Carlo simulation results. Results: The suggested framework for absorbed dose estimation successfully provided the primary and secondary dose distributions of the phantom. Moreover, our analytic dose calculations and Monte Carlo calculations were well agreed each other even near the inhomogeneous inserts. Conclusion: This work indicated that our framework can be an effective monitor to estimate a patient’s exposure owing to cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Therefore, we expected that the patient’s over-exposure during IGRT might be prevented by our framework.« less
  • Purpose: Photon-counting detectors (PCDs) allow multi-energy X-ray imaging without additional exposures and spectral overlap. This capability results in the improvement of accuracy of material decomposition for dual-energy X-ray imaging and the reduction of radiation dose. In this study, the PCD-based contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) was compared with the conventional CDEM in terms of radiation dose, image quality and accuracy of material decomposition. Methods: A dual-energy model was designed by using Beer-Lambert’s law and rational inverse fitting function for decomposing materials from a polychromatic X-ray source. A cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based PCD, which has five energy thresholds, and iodine solutions includedmore » in a 3D half-cylindrical phantom, which composed of 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissues, were simulated by using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. The low- and high-energy images were obtained in accordance with the clinical exposure conditions for the conventional CDEM. Energy bins of 20–33 and 34–50 keV were defined from X-ray energy spectra simulated at 50 kVp with different dose levels for implementing the PCD-based CDEM. The dual-energy mammographic techniques were compared by means of absorbed dose, noise property and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE). Results: Comparing to the conventional CEDM, the iodine solutions were clearly decomposed for the PCD-based CEDM. Although the radiation dose for the PCD-based CDEM was lower than that for the conventional CEDM, the PCD-based CDEM improved the noise property and accuracy of decomposition images. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the PCD-based CDEM allows the quantitative material decomposition, and reduces radiation dose in comparison with the conventional CDEM. Therefore, the PCD-based CDEM is able to provide useful information for detecting breast tumor and enhancing diagnostic accuracy in mammography.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined organ dose of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography (CT) using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation on the abdominal intervention. Methods: The organ doses for DSA and CT were obtained with MC simulation and actual measurements using fluorescent-glass dosimeters at 7 abdominal portions in an Alderson-Rando phantom. DSA was performed from three directions: posterior anterior (PA), right anterior oblique (RAO), and left anterior oblique (LAO). The organ dose with MC simulation was compared with actual radiation dose measurements. Calculations for the MC simulation were carried out with themore » GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. Finally, the combined organ dose for DSA and CT was calculated from the MC simulation using the X-ray conditions of a patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: For DSA from the PA direction, the organ doses for the actual measurements and MC simulation were 2.2 and 2.4 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, respectively, and 3.0 and 3.1 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord, while for CT, the organ doses were 15.2 and 15.1 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, and 14.6 and 13.5 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord. The maximum difference in organ dose between the actual measurements and the MC simulation was 11.0% of the spleen at PA, 8.2% of the spinal cord at RAO, and 6.1% of left kidney at LAO with DSA and 9.3% of the stomach with CT. The combined organ dose (4 DSAs and 6 CT scans) with the use of actual patient conditions was found to be 197.4 mGy for the liver and 205.1 mGy for the spinal cord. Conclusion: Our method makes it possible to accurately assess the organ dose to patients for abdominal intervention with combined DSA and CT.« less
  • Purpose: Accurate values for Kerma-Area-Product (KAP) are needed for patient dosimetry and quality control for exams utilizing radiographic and/or fluoroscopic imaging. The KAP measured using a typical direct KAP meter built with parallel-plate transmission ionization chamber is not precise and depends on the energy spectrum of diagnostic x-rays. This study compared the accuracy and reproducibility of KAP derived from system parameters with values measured with a direct KAP meter. Methods: IEC tolerance for displayed KAP is specified up to ± 35% above 2.5 Gy-cm{sup 2} and manufacturer’s specifications are typically ± 25%. KAP values from the direct KAP meter driftsmore » with time leading to replacement or re-calibration. More precise and consistent KAP is achievable utilizing a database of known radiation output for various system parameters. The integrated KAP meter was removed from a radiography system. A total of 48 measurements of air kerma were acquired at x-ray tube potential from 40 to 150 kVp with 10 kVp increment using ion chamber type external dosimeter at free-in-air geometry for four different types of filter combinations following the manufacturer’s service procedure. These data were used to create updated correction factors that determine air kerma computationally for given system parameters. Results of calculated KAP were evaluated against results using a calibrated ion chamber based dosimeter and a computed radiography imaging plate to measure x-ray field size. Results: The accuracy of calculated KAP from the system parameters was better within 4% deviation in all diagnostic x-ray tube potentials tested from 50 to 140 kVp. In contrast, deviations of up to 25% were measured from KAP displayed from the direct KAP meter. Conclusion: The “calculated KAP” approach provides the nominal advantage of improved accuracy and precision of displayed KAP as well as reduced cost of calibrating or replacing integrated KAP meters.« less