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Title: MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System

Abstract

Purpose: The functionality of the Dose-Tracking System (DTS) has been expanded to include the calculation of the Kerma-Area Product (KAP) for non-uniform x-ray fields such as result from the use of compensation filters during fluoroscopic procedures Methods: The DTS calculates skin dose during fluoroscopic interventions and provides a color-coded dose map on a patient-graphic model. The KAP is the integral of air kerma over the x-ray field and is usually measured with a transmission-ionization chamber that intercepts the entire x-ray beam. The DTS has been modified to determine KAP when there are beam non-uniformities that can be modeled. For example, the DTS includes models of the three compensation filters with tapered edges located in the collimator assembly of the Toshiba Infinix fluoroscopic C-Arm and can track their movement. To determine the air kerma after the filters, DTS includes transmission factors for the compensation filters as a function of kVp and beam filtration. A virtual KAP dosimeter is simulated in the DTS by an array of graphic vertices; the air kerma at each vertex is corrected by the field non-uniformity, which in this case is the attenuation factor for those rays which pass through the filter. The products of individual vertexmore » air-kerma values for all vertices within the beam times the effective-area-per-vertex are summed for each x-ray pulse to yield the KAP per pulse and the cumulative KAP for the procedure is then calculated. Results: The KAP values estimated by DTS with the compensation filter inserted into the x-ray field agree within ± 6% with the values displayed on the fluoroscopy unit monitor, which are measured with a transmission chamber. Conclusion: The DTS can account for field non-uniformities such as result from the use of compensation filters in calculating KAP and can obviate the need for a KAP transmission ionization chamber. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AIR FILTERS; BEAMS; DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; KERMA; PARTICLE TRACKS; RADIATION DOSES; SIMULATION; SKIN; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, & Bednarek, D. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
Vijayan, S, Xiong, Z, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. Wed . "MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957336.
@article{osti_22653886,
title = {MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-04: Kerma Area Product Calculation for Non-Uniform X-Ray Fields Using a Skin Dose Tracking System},
author = {Vijayan, S and Xiong, Z and Rudin, S and Bednarek, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The functionality of the Dose-Tracking System (DTS) has been expanded to include the calculation of the Kerma-Area Product (KAP) for non-uniform x-ray fields such as result from the use of compensation filters during fluoroscopic procedures Methods: The DTS calculates skin dose during fluoroscopic interventions and provides a color-coded dose map on a patient-graphic model. The KAP is the integral of air kerma over the x-ray field and is usually measured with a transmission-ionization chamber that intercepts the entire x-ray beam. The DTS has been modified to determine KAP when there are beam non-uniformities that can be modeled. For example, the DTS includes models of the three compensation filters with tapered edges located in the collimator assembly of the Toshiba Infinix fluoroscopic C-Arm and can track their movement. To determine the air kerma after the filters, DTS includes transmission factors for the compensation filters as a function of kVp and beam filtration. A virtual KAP dosimeter is simulated in the DTS by an array of graphic vertices; the air kerma at each vertex is corrected by the field non-uniformity, which in this case is the attenuation factor for those rays which pass through the filter. The products of individual vertex air-kerma values for all vertices within the beam times the effective-area-per-vertex are summed for each x-ray pulse to yield the KAP per pulse and the cumulative KAP for the procedure is then calculated. Results: The KAP values estimated by DTS with the compensation filter inserted into the x-ray field agree within ± 6% with the values displayed on the fluoroscopy unit monitor, which are measured with a transmission chamber. Conclusion: The DTS can account for field non-uniformities such as result from the use of compensation filters in calculating KAP and can obviate the need for a KAP transmission ionization chamber. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957336},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To develop new ionization chamber dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using a beam quality conversion factor, kQ, for Co-60 to kV x-ray and an ionization conversion factor for a water-substitute plastic phantom. Methods: kQ was calculated for aluminum half value-layers (Al-HVLs) of 1.5 mm to 8 mm which were generated by kV x-ray beams of 50 to 120 kVp. Twenty-two energy spectra for ten effective energies (Eeff) were calculated by a SpecCalc program. Depth doses in water were calculated at 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields. Output factorsmore » were also obtained from the dose ratio for a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field. kQ was obtained for a PTW30013 Former ion chamber. In addition, an ionization conversion factor of the PWDT phantom to water was calculated. All calculations were performed with EGSnrc/cavity code and egs-chamber codes. Results: The x-ray beam energies for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs ranged in Eeff of 25.7 to 54.3 keV. kQ for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs were 0.831 to 0.897, at 1 and 2 cm depths for a 10 × 10 cm2 field. Similarly, output factors for 5 × 5 to 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} fields were 0.937 to 1.033 for 25.7 keV and 0.857 to 1.168 for 54.3 keV. The depth dose in a PWDT phantom decreased up to 5% compared to that in water at depth of ten percent of maximum dose for 1.5 mm Al-HVL. The ionization ratios of water/PWDT phantoms for the PTW30013 chamber were 1.012 to 1.007 for 1.5 mm to 8 mm Al-HVLs at 1 cm depth. Conclusion: It became possible to directly measure the absorbed dose to water with the ionization chamber in diagnostic kV x-ray beams, by using kQ and the PWDT phantom.« less
  • Purpose: Photon-counting detectors (PCDs) allow multi-energy X-ray imaging without additional exposures and spectral overlap. This capability results in the improvement of accuracy of material decomposition for dual-energy X-ray imaging and the reduction of radiation dose. In this study, the PCD-based contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) was compared with the conventional CDEM in terms of radiation dose, image quality and accuracy of material decomposition. Methods: A dual-energy model was designed by using Beer-Lambert’s law and rational inverse fitting function for decomposing materials from a polychromatic X-ray source. A cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based PCD, which has five energy thresholds, and iodine solutions includedmore » in a 3D half-cylindrical phantom, which composed of 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissues, were simulated by using a Monte Carlo simulation tool. The low- and high-energy images were obtained in accordance with the clinical exposure conditions for the conventional CDEM. Energy bins of 20–33 and 34–50 keV were defined from X-ray energy spectra simulated at 50 kVp with different dose levels for implementing the PCD-based CDEM. The dual-energy mammographic techniques were compared by means of absorbed dose, noise property and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE). Results: Comparing to the conventional CEDM, the iodine solutions were clearly decomposed for the PCD-based CEDM. Although the radiation dose for the PCD-based CDEM was lower than that for the conventional CEDM, the PCD-based CDEM improved the noise property and accuracy of decomposition images. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the PCD-based CDEM allows the quantitative material decomposition, and reduces radiation dose in comparison with the conventional CDEM. Therefore, the PCD-based CDEM is able to provide useful information for detecting breast tumor and enhancing diagnostic accuracy in mammography.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined organ dose of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography (CT) using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation on the abdominal intervention. Methods: The organ doses for DSA and CT were obtained with MC simulation and actual measurements using fluorescent-glass dosimeters at 7 abdominal portions in an Alderson-Rando phantom. DSA was performed from three directions: posterior anterior (PA), right anterior oblique (RAO), and left anterior oblique (LAO). The organ dose with MC simulation was compared with actual radiation dose measurements. Calculations for the MC simulation were carried out with themore » GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. Finally, the combined organ dose for DSA and CT was calculated from the MC simulation using the X-ray conditions of a patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: For DSA from the PA direction, the organ doses for the actual measurements and MC simulation were 2.2 and 2.4 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, respectively, and 3.0 and 3.1 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord, while for CT, the organ doses were 15.2 and 15.1 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, and 14.6 and 13.5 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord. The maximum difference in organ dose between the actual measurements and the MC simulation was 11.0% of the spleen at PA, 8.2% of the spinal cord at RAO, and 6.1% of left kidney at LAO with DSA and 9.3% of the stomach with CT. The combined organ dose (4 DSAs and 6 CT scans) with the use of actual patient conditions was found to be 197.4 mGy for the liver and 205.1 mGy for the spinal cord. Conclusion: Our method makes it possible to accurately assess the organ dose to patients for abdominal intervention with combined DSA and CT.« less
  • Purpose: To validate dose calculation and delivery accuracy of a recently introduced mono-isocentric technique for the treatment of multiple brain metastases in a realistic clinical case. Methods: Anonymized CT scans of a patient were used to model a hollow phantom that duplicates anatomy of the skull. A 3D printer was used to construct the phantom of a radiologically bone-equivalent material. The hollow phantom was subsequently filled with a polymer gel 3D dosimeter which also acted as a water-equivalent material. Irradiation plan consisted of 5 targets and was identical to the one delivered to the specific patient except for the prescriptionmore » dose which was optimized to match the gel dose-response characteristics. Dose delivery was performed using a single setup isocenter dynamic conformal arcs technique. Gel dose read-out was carried out by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. All steps of the corresponding patient’s treatment protocol were strictly followed providing an end-to-end quality assurance test. Pseudo-in-vivo measured 3D dose distribution and calculated one were compared in terms of spatial agreement, dose profiles, 3D gamma indices (5%/2mm, 20% dose threshold), DVHs and DVH metrics. Results: MR-identified polymerized areas and calculated high dose regions were found to agree within 1.5 mm for all targets, taking into account all sources of spatial uncertainties involved (i.e., set-up errors, MR-related geometric distortions and registration inaccuracies). Good dosimetric agreement was observed in the vast majority of the examined profiles. 3D gamma index passing rate reached 91%. DVH and corresponding metrics comparison resulted in a satisfying agreement between measured and calculated datasets within targets and selected organs-at-risk. Conclusion: A novel, pseudo-in-vivo QA test was implemented to validate spatial and dosimetric accuracy in treatment of multiple metastases. End-to-end testing demonstrated that our gel dosimetry phantom is suited for such QA procedures, allowing for 3D analysis of both targeting placement and dose.« less
  • Purpose: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. Methods: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 headmore » trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients. Phantom materials were characterized in terms of SPR in a particle beam to obtain reference values. IMPT treatment plans were generated on the basis of SECT and DECT SPR images for hypothetical brain tumors using a short and a long beam path. Range differences between SECT and DECT from plan recalculations were evaluated in beam-eye-view (BEV) by comparing the 80% isodose. Results: For the 18 phantom materials the SECT RMS SPR errors were 2.6% compared to 1.1% for DECT. Group median relative range differences between SECT and DECT plans were −1.0% for the short beam path over the 5 patients investigated in this study. For the long beam path the median difference was −1.4%. These relative range differences corresponded to −0.5 mm and −1.4 mm shifts respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study performing proton therapy treatment planning on DECT patient images. Important range differences of more than 1 mm were observed between SECT and DECT treatment plans, and DECT SPR accuracy was found superior on the basis of phantom measurements. While the patients investigated in this study did not have brain tumors, the findings we observed should apply to cancer patients. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)« less