skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank

Abstract

Purpose: To develop a method to exploit real-time dynamic machine and couch parameter control during linear accelerator (LINAC) beam delivery to facilitate efficient performance of TG-142 suggested, Annual LINAC QA tests. Methods: Varian’s TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) facilitates control of Varian’s TrueBeam LINAC via instructions provided in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. This allows machine and couch parameters to be varied dynamically, in real-time, during beam delivery. Custom XML files were created to allow for the collection of (1) continuous Tissue Maximum Ratios (TMRs), (2) beam profiles, and (3) continuous output factors using a 1D-scanning tank. TMRs were acquired by orienting an ionization chamber (IC) at isocenter (depth=25cm) and synchronizing a depth scan towards the water surface while lowering the couch at 1mm/s. For beam profiles, the couch was driven laterally and longitudinally while logging IC electrometer readings. Output factors (OFs) where collected by continually varying field sizes (4×4 to 30×30-cm{sup 2}) at a constant speed of 6.66 mm/s. To validate measurements, comparisons were made to data collected using traditional methods (e.g. 1D or 3D tank). Results: All data collecting using the proposed methods agreed with traditionally collected data (TMRs within 1%, OFs within 0.5%more » and beam profile agreement within 1% / 1mm) while taking less time to collect (factor of approximately 1/10) and with a finer sample resolution. Conclusion: TrueBeam developer mode facilitates collection of continuous data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected data with a finer resolution in less time. Results demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in sampled resolution and an order of magnitude reduction in collection time compared to traditional acquisition methods (e.g. 3D scanning tank). We are currently extending this approach to perform other TG-142 tasks.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653874
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAM PROFILES; DEVELOPERS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Knutson, N, Schmidt, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Nguyen, N, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Belley, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, Price, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, and Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957305.
Knutson, N, Schmidt, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Nguyen, N, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Belley, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, Price, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, & Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957305.
Knutson, N, Schmidt, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Nguyen, N, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, Belley, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, Price, M, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, and Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. 2016. "MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957305.
@article{osti_22653874,
title = {MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank},
author = {Knutson, N and Schmidt, M and University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI and University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA and Nguyen, N and University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA and Belley, M and University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI and Price, M and University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI and Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop a method to exploit real-time dynamic machine and couch parameter control during linear accelerator (LINAC) beam delivery to facilitate efficient performance of TG-142 suggested, Annual LINAC QA tests. Methods: Varian’s TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) facilitates control of Varian’s TrueBeam LINAC via instructions provided in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. This allows machine and couch parameters to be varied dynamically, in real-time, during beam delivery. Custom XML files were created to allow for the collection of (1) continuous Tissue Maximum Ratios (TMRs), (2) beam profiles, and (3) continuous output factors using a 1D-scanning tank. TMRs were acquired by orienting an ionization chamber (IC) at isocenter (depth=25cm) and synchronizing a depth scan towards the water surface while lowering the couch at 1mm/s. For beam profiles, the couch was driven laterally and longitudinally while logging IC electrometer readings. Output factors (OFs) where collected by continually varying field sizes (4×4 to 30×30-cm{sup 2}) at a constant speed of 6.66 mm/s. To validate measurements, comparisons were made to data collected using traditional methods (e.g. 1D or 3D tank). Results: All data collecting using the proposed methods agreed with traditionally collected data (TMRs within 1%, OFs within 0.5% and beam profile agreement within 1% / 1mm) while taking less time to collect (factor of approximately 1/10) and with a finer sample resolution. Conclusion: TrueBeam developer mode facilitates collection of continuous data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected data with a finer resolution in less time. Results demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in sampled resolution and an order of magnitude reduction in collection time compared to traditional acquisition methods (e.g. 3D scanning tank). We are currently extending this approach to perform other TG-142 tasks.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957305},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The Varian EDGE machine is a new stereotactic platform, combining Calypso and VisionRT localization systems with a stereotactic linac. The system includes TrueBeam DeveloperMode, making possible the use of XML-scripting for automation of linac-related tasks. This study details the use of DeveloperMode to automate commissioning tasks for Varian EDGE, thereby improving efficiency and measurement consistency. Methods: XML-scripting was used for various commissioning tasks,including couch model verification,beam-scanning,and isocenter verification. For couch measurements, point measurements were acquired for several field sizes (2×2,4×4,10×10cm{sup 2}) at 42 gantry angles for two couch-models. Measurements were acquired with variations in couch position(rails in/out,couch shifted inmore » each of motion axes) compared to treatment planning system(TPS)-calculated values,which were logged automatically through advanced planning interface(API) scripting functionality. For beam scanning, XML-scripts were used to create custom MLC-apertures. For isocenter verification, XML-scripts were used to automate various Winston-Lutz-type tests. Results: For couch measurements, the time required for each set of angles was approximately 9 minutes. Without scripting, each set required approximately 12 minutes. Automated measurements required only one physicist, while manual measurements required at least two physicists to handle linac positions/beams and data recording. MLC apertures were generated outside of the TPS,and with the .xml file format, double-checking without use of TPS/operator console was possible. Similar time efficiency gains were found for isocenter verification measurements Conclusion: The use of XML scripting in TrueBeam DeveloperMode allows for efficient and accurate data acquisition during commissioning. The efficiency improvement is most pronounced for iterative measurements, exemplified by the time savings for couch modeling measurements(approximately 10 hours). The scripting also allowed for creation of the files in advance without requiring access to TPS. The API scripting functionality enabled efficient creation/mining of TPS data. Finally, automation reduces the potential for human error in entering linac values at the machine console,and the script provides a log of measurements acquired for each session. This research was supported in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.« less
  • The interplay effect between the tumor motion and the radiation beam modulation during a VMAT treatment delivery alters the delivered dose distribution from the planned one. This work present and validate a method to accurately calculate the dose distribution in 4D taking into account the tumor motion, the field modulation and the treatment starting phase. A QUASAR™ respiratory motion phantom was 4D scanned with motion amplitude of 3 cm and with a 3 second period. A static scan was also acquired with the lung insert and the tumor contained in it centered. A VMAT plan with a 6XFFF beam wasmore » created on the averaged CT and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam and the trajectory log file was saved. From the trajectory log file 10 VMAT plans (one for each breathing phase) and a developer mode XML file were created. For the 10 VMAT plans, the tumor motion was modeled by moving the isocentre on the static scan, the plans were re-calculated and summed in the treatment planning system. In the developer mode, the tumor motion was simulated by moving the couch dynamically during the treatment. Gafchromic films were placed in the QUASAR phantom static and irradiated using the developer mode. Different treatment starting phase were investigated (no phase shift, maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation). Calculated and measured isodose lines and profiles are in very good agreement. For each starting phase, the dose distribution exhibit significant differences but are accurately calculated with the methodology presented in this work.« less
  • Purpose: Use Varian TrueBeam Developer mode to quantify the mechanical limits of the couch and to simulate 4D respiratory motion. Methods: An in-house MATLAB based GUI was created to make the BEAM XML files. The couch was moved in a triangular wave in the S/I direction with varying amplitudes (1mm, 5mm, 10mm, and 50mm) and periods (3s, 6s, and 9s). The periods were determined by specifying the speed. The theoretical positions were compared to the values recorded by the machine at 50 Hz. HD videos were taken for certain tests as external validation. 4D Respiratory motion was simulated by anmore » A/P MV beam being delivered while the couch moved in an elliptical manner. The ellipse had a major axis of 2 cm (S/I) and a minor axis of 1 cm (A/P). Results: The path planned by the TrueBeam deviated from the theoretical triangular form as the speed increased. Deviations were noticed starting at a speed of 3.33 cm/s (50mm amplitude, 6s period). The greatest deviation occurred in the 50mm- 3s sequence with a correlation value of −0.13 and a 27% time increase; the plan essentially became out of phase. Excluding these two, the plans had correlation values of 0.99. The elliptical sequence effectively simulated a respiratory pattern with a period of 6s. The period could be controlled by changing the speeds or the dose rate. Conclusion: The work first shows the quantification of the mechanical limits of the couch and the speeds at which the proposed plans begin to deviate. These limits must be kept in mind when programming other couch sequences. The methodology can be used to quantify the limits of other axes. Furthermore, the work shows the possibility of creating 4D respiratory simulations without using specialized phantoms or motion-platforms. This can be further developed to program patient-specific breathing patterns.« less
  • Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor.more » In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.« less
  • Purpose: To address the challenges of creating delivery trajectories and imaging sequences with TrueBeam Developer Mode, a new open-source graphical XML builder, Veritas, has been developed, tested and made freely available. Veritas eliminates most of the need to understand the underlying schema and write XML scripts, by providing a graphical menu for each control point specifying the state of 30 mechanical/dose axes. All capabilities of Developer Mode are accessible in Veritas. Methods: Veritas was designed using QT Designer, a ‘what-you-is-what-you-get’ (WYSIWIG) tool for building graphical user interfaces (GUI). Different components of the GUI are integrated using QT's signals and slotsmore » mechanism. Functionalities are added using PySide, an open source, cross platform Python binding for the QT framework. The XML code generated is immediately visible, making it an interactive learning tool. A user starts from an anonymized DICOM file or XML example and introduces delivery modifications, or begins their experiment from scratch, then uses the GUI to modify control points as desired. The software automatically generates XML plans following the appropriate schema. Results: Veritas was tested by generating and delivering two XML plans at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The first example was created to irradiate the letter ‘B’ with a narrow MV beam using dynamic couch movements. The second was created to acquire 4D CBCT projections for four minutes. The delivery of the letter ‘B’ was observed using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Both deliveries were generated quickly in Veritas by non-expert Developer Mode users. Conclusion: We introduced a new open source tool Veritas for generating XML plans (delivery trajectories and imaging sequences). Veritas makes Developer Mode more accessible by reducing the learning curve for quick translation of research ideas into XML plans. Veritas is an open source initiative, creating the possibility for future developments and collaboration with other researchers. I am an employee of Varian Medical Systems.« less