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Title: MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds

Abstract

Purpose: Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce organ motion during radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion during BH between inhalation and exhalation BHs with variable lung volumes and to investigate whether motion increases/decreases during BH. Methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform four different 60-second BHs, from fully inflated to fully deflated lungs (i.e. lung volumes of: 100%, ∼70%, ∼30% and 0% of inspiratory capacity) three times (total of 192 BHs). During each BH, we obtained single-slice (coronal) magnetic-resonance scans with spatial resolution 0.93×0.93×8.0 mm3 and temporal resolution 0.6 s. We used 2-dimensional image correlation to obtain the motion of pancreatic head and diaphragm during BH. Motion magnitude in inferior-superior direction was obtained by determining the maximum displacement during BH. Results: Pancreatic and diaphragmatic drifts occurred during BH and were mostly in the superior direction. We observed significantly smaller pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion magnitudes in inferior-superior direction during exhalation BHs (BH{sub 30%} and BH{sub 0%}) compared to inhalation BHs (BH{sub 100%} and BH{sub 70%}). The mean motion magnitudes of the pancreatic head were 7.0, 6.5, 4.4 and 4.2 mm during BH{sub 100%}, BH{sub 70%}, BH{sub 30%} and BH{submore » 0%}, respectively, and mean BH durations were 59.9, 59.1, 59.0 and 52.7 s. For the diaphragm, mean motion magnitudes were 9.8, 9.0, 5.6 and 4.3 mm, respectively. When considering 30-second BHs, as often used in the clinic, the motion was most pronounced during the first 10 s and excluding these from the analysis (yielding an effective BH period of 20 s) significantly reduced (P≤0.002) organ motion. Conclusion: Organ motion was significantly smaller during exhalation BHs compared to inhalation BHs. Also, motion was largest at the start of BH. Hence, waiting for 10 s may significantly decrease motion of the pancreas and diaphragm during treatment.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands)
  2. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653872
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BREATH; DIAPHRAGM; EXHALATION; INHALATION; LUNGS; PANCREAS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Lens, E, Gurney-Champion, O, Horst, A van der, Tekelenburg, D, Kesteren, Z van, Tienhoven, G van, Nederveen, A, Bel, A, and Parkes, M. MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957302.
Lens, E, Gurney-Champion, O, Horst, A van der, Tekelenburg, D, Kesteren, Z van, Tienhoven, G van, Nederveen, A, Bel, A, & Parkes, M. MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957302.
Lens, E, Gurney-Champion, O, Horst, A van der, Tekelenburg, D, Kesteren, Z van, Tienhoven, G van, Nederveen, A, Bel, A, and Parkes, M. 2016. "MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957302.
@article{osti_22653872,
title = {MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds},
author = {Lens, E and Gurney-Champion, O and Horst, A van der and Tekelenburg, D and Kesteren, Z van and Tienhoven, G van and Nederveen, A and Bel, A and Parkes, M},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce organ motion during radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion during BH between inhalation and exhalation BHs with variable lung volumes and to investigate whether motion increases/decreases during BH. Methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform four different 60-second BHs, from fully inflated to fully deflated lungs (i.e. lung volumes of: 100%, ∼70%, ∼30% and 0% of inspiratory capacity) three times (total of 192 BHs). During each BH, we obtained single-slice (coronal) magnetic-resonance scans with spatial resolution 0.93×0.93×8.0 mm3 and temporal resolution 0.6 s. We used 2-dimensional image correlation to obtain the motion of pancreatic head and diaphragm during BH. Motion magnitude in inferior-superior direction was obtained by determining the maximum displacement during BH. Results: Pancreatic and diaphragmatic drifts occurred during BH and were mostly in the superior direction. We observed significantly smaller pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion magnitudes in inferior-superior direction during exhalation BHs (BH{sub 30%} and BH{sub 0%}) compared to inhalation BHs (BH{sub 100%} and BH{sub 70%}). The mean motion magnitudes of the pancreatic head were 7.0, 6.5, 4.4 and 4.2 mm during BH{sub 100%}, BH{sub 70%}, BH{sub 30%} and BH{sub 0%}, respectively, and mean BH durations were 59.9, 59.1, 59.0 and 52.7 s. For the diaphragm, mean motion magnitudes were 9.8, 9.0, 5.6 and 4.3 mm, respectively. When considering 30-second BHs, as often used in the clinic, the motion was most pronounced during the first 10 s and excluding these from the analysis (yielding an effective BH period of 20 s) significantly reduced (P≤0.002) organ motion. Conclusion: Organ motion was significantly smaller during exhalation BHs compared to inhalation BHs. Also, motion was largest at the start of BH. Hence, waiting for 10 s may significantly decrease motion of the pancreas and diaphragm during treatment.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957302},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Voluntary deep inhalation breath hold (VDIBH) reduces heart dose during left breast irradiation. We present results of the first study performed to quantify reproducibility of breath hold using bony anatomy, heart position, and heart dose for VDIBH patients at treatment table. Methods and Materials: Data from 10 left breast cancer patients undergoing VDIBH whole-breast irradiation were analyzed. Two computed tomography (CT) scans, free breathing (FB) and VDIBH, were acquired to compare dose to critical structures. Pretreatment weekly kV orthogonal images and tangential ports were acquired. The displacement difference from spinal cord to sternum across the isocenter between coregistered planningmore » Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) and kV imaging of bony thorax is a measure of breath hold reproducibility. The difference between bony coregistration and heart coregistration was the measured heart shift if the patient is aligned to bony anatomy. Results: Percentage of dose reductions from FB to VDIBH: mean heart dose (48%, SD 19%, p = 0.002), mean LAD dose (43%, SD 19%, p = 0.008), and maximum left anterior descending (LAD) dose (60%, SD 22%, p = 0.008). Average breath hold reproducibility using bony anatomy across the isocenter along the anteroposterior (AP) plane from planning to treatment is 1 (range, 0-3; SD, 1) mm. Average heart shifts with respect to bony anatomy between different breath holds are 2 {+-} 3 mm inferior, 1 {+-} 2 mm right, and 1 {+-} 3 mm posterior. Percentage dose changes from planning to delivery: mean heart dose (7%, SD 6%); mean LAD dose, ((9%, SD 7%)S, and maximum LAD dose, (11%, SD 11%) SD 11%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: We observed excellent three-dimensional bony registration between planning and pretreatment imaging. Reduced delivered dose to heart and LAD is maintained throughout VDIBH treatment.« less
  • Purpose: Many patients with left-sided breast cancer receive adjuvant radiotherapy during deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) to minimize radiation exposure to the heart. We measured the displacement of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and heart owing to cardiac motion during DIBH, relative to the standard tangential fields for left breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients who had undergone computed tomography-based coronary angiography with retrospective electrocardiographic gating were randomly selected for the present study. The patients underwent scanning during DIBH to control the influence of respiration on cardiac motion. Standard medial and lateral tangential fields weremore » placed, and the LADs were contoured on the systolic- and diastolic-phase computed tomography data sets by the clinicians. Displacement of the LAD during cardiac contractions was calculated in three directions: toward the posterior edge of the treatment fields, left-right, and anteroposterior. Displacement of the entire heart was measured on the maximal and minimal intensity projection computed tomography images. Results: The mean displacement of the LAD from cardiac contraction without the influence of respiration for 20 patients was 2.3 mm (range, 0.7-3.8) toward the posterior edge of the treatment fields, 2.6 mm (range, 1.0-6.8) in the left-right direction, and 2.3 mm (range, 0.6-6.5) in the anteroposterior direction. At least 30% of the LAD volume was displaced >5 mm in any direction in 2 patients (10%), and <10% of the LAD volume was displaced >5 mm in 10 patients (50%). The extent of displacement of the heart periphery during cardiac motion was negligible near the treatment fields. Conclusions: Displacement of the heart periphery near the treatment fields was negligible during DIBH; however, displacement of the LAD from cardiac contraction varied substantially between and within patients. We recommend maintaining {>=}5 mm of distance between the LAD and the field edge for patients undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy during DIBH.« less
  • Purpose: IGRT based on the bone matching may produce a larger target positioning error in terms of the reproducibility of the expiration breath hold. Therefore, the feasibility of the 3D image matching between planning CT image and pretreatment CBCT image based on the diaphragm matching was investigated. Methods: In fifteen-nine liver SBRT cases, Lipiodol, uptake after TACE was outlined as the marker of the tumor. The relative coordinate of the isocenter obtained by the contrast matching was defined as the reference coordinate. The target positioning difference between diaphragm matching and bone matching were evaluated by the relative coordinate of themore » isocenter from the reference coordinate obtained by each matching technique. In addition, we evaluated PTV margins by van Herk setup margin formula. Results: The target positioning error by the diaphragm matching and the bone matching was 1.31±0.83 and 3.10±2.80 mm in the cranial-caudal(C-C) direction, 1.04±0.95 and 1.62±1.02 mm in the anterior-posterior(A-P) direction, 0.93±1.19 and 1.12±0.94 mm in the left-right(L-R) direction, respectively. The positioning error by the diaphragm matching was significantly smaller than the bone matching in the C-C direction (p<0.05). The setup margin of diaphragm matching and bone matching that we had calculated based on van Herk margin formula was 4.5mm and 6.2mm(C-C), and 3.6mm and 6.3mm(A-P), and 2.6mm and 4.5mm(L-R), respectively. Conclusion: IGRT based on a diaphragm matching could be one alternative image matching technique for the positioning of the patients with liver tumor.« less
  • Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of using 3D-surface-image to guide breath-holding (BH) left-side breast treatment. Methods Two 3D surface image guided BH procedures were implemented and evaluated: normal-BH, taking BH at a comfortable level, and deep-inspiration-breath-holding (DIBH). A total of 20 patients (10 Normal-BH and 10 DIBH) were recruited. Patients received a BH evaluation using a commercialized 3D-surface- tracking-system (VisionRT, London, UK) to quantify the reproducibility of BH positions prior to CT scan. Tangential 3D/IMRT plans were conducted. Patients were initially setup under free-breathing (FB) condition using the FB surface obtained from the untaged CT to ensure a correct patientmore » position. Patients were then guided to reach the planned BH position using the BH surface obtained from the BH CT. Action-levels were set at each phase of treatment process based on the information provided by the 3D-surface-tracking-system for proper interventions (eliminate/re-setup/ re-coaching). We reviewed the frequency of interventions to evaluate its effectiveness. The FB-CBCT and port-film were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of 3D-surface-guided setups. Results 25% of BH candidates with BH positioning uncertainty > 2mm are eliminated prior to CT scan. For >90% of fractions, based on the setup deltas from3D-surface-trackingsystem, adjustments of patient setup are needed after the initial-setup using laser. 3D-surface-guided-setup accuracy is comparable as CBCT. For the BH guidance, frequency of interventions (a re-coaching/re-setup) is 40%(Normal-BH)/91%(DIBH) of treatments for the first 5-fractions and then drops to 16%(Normal-BH)/46%(DIBH). The necessity of re-setup is highly patient-specific for Normal-BH but highly random among patients for DIBH. Overall, a −0.8±2.4 mm accuracy of the anterior pericardial shadow position was achieved. Conclusion 3D-surface-image technology provides effective intervention to the treatment process and ensures favorable day-to-day setup accuracy. DIBH setup appears to be more uncertain and this would be the patient group who will definitely benefit from the extra information of 3D surface setup.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized pronemore » on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.« less