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Title: MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

Abstract

Purpose: Tomotherapy has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. In this study, we analyzed the impact of intrafractional motion on cumulative dosimetry using actual patient motion data and investigated real time jaw/MLC compensation approaches to minimize the motion-induced dose discrepancy in Tomotherapy SBRT treatment. Methods: Intrafractional motion data recorded in two CyberKnife lung treatment cases through fiducial tracking and two LINAC prostate cases through Calypso tracking were used in this study. For each treatment site, one representative case has an average motion (6mm) and one has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). The cases were re-planned on Tomotherapy for SBRT. Each case was planned with 3 different jaw settings: 1cm static, 2.5cm dynamic, and 5cm dynamic. 4D dose accumulation software was developed to compute dose with the recorded motions and theoretically compensate motions by modifying original jaw and MLC to track the trajectory of the tumor. Results: PTV coverage in Tomotherapy SBRT for patients with intrafractional motion depends on motion type, amplitude and plan settings. For the prostate patient with large motion, PTV coverage changed from 97.2% (motion-free) to 47.1% (target motion-included), 96.6% to 58.5% and 96.3% to 97.8% for the 1cmmore » static jaw, 2.5cm dynamic jaw and 5cm dynamic jaw setting, respectively. For the lung patient with large motion, PTV coverage discrepancies showed a similar trend of change. When the jaw and MLC compensation program was engaged, the motion compromised PTV coverage was recovered back to >95% for all cases and plans. All organs at risk (OAR) were spared with < 5% increase from original motion-free plans. Conclusion: Tomotherapy SBRT is less motion-impacted when 5cm dynamic jaw is used. Once the motion pattern is known, the jaw and MLC compensation program can largely minimize the compromised target coverage and OAR sparing.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
  2. Accuray Incorporated, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653870
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTER CODES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CT-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; LUNGS; PARTICLE TRACKS; PATIENTS; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Price, A, Chang, S, Matney, J, Wang, A, Lian, J, and Chao, E. MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957300.
Price, A, Chang, S, Matney, J, Wang, A, Lian, J, & Chao, E. MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957300.
Price, A, Chang, S, Matney, J, Wang, A, Lian, J, and Chao, E. 2016. "MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957300.
@article{osti_22653870,
title = {MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)},
author = {Price, A and Chang, S and Matney, J and Wang, A and Lian, J and Chao, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Tomotherapy has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. In this study, we analyzed the impact of intrafractional motion on cumulative dosimetry using actual patient motion data and investigated real time jaw/MLC compensation approaches to minimize the motion-induced dose discrepancy in Tomotherapy SBRT treatment. Methods: Intrafractional motion data recorded in two CyberKnife lung treatment cases through fiducial tracking and two LINAC prostate cases through Calypso tracking were used in this study. For each treatment site, one representative case has an average motion (6mm) and one has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). The cases were re-planned on Tomotherapy for SBRT. Each case was planned with 3 different jaw settings: 1cm static, 2.5cm dynamic, and 5cm dynamic. 4D dose accumulation software was developed to compute dose with the recorded motions and theoretically compensate motions by modifying original jaw and MLC to track the trajectory of the tumor. Results: PTV coverage in Tomotherapy SBRT for patients with intrafractional motion depends on motion type, amplitude and plan settings. For the prostate patient with large motion, PTV coverage changed from 97.2% (motion-free) to 47.1% (target motion-included), 96.6% to 58.5% and 96.3% to 97.8% for the 1cm static jaw, 2.5cm dynamic jaw and 5cm dynamic jaw setting, respectively. For the lung patient with large motion, PTV coverage discrepancies showed a similar trend of change. When the jaw and MLC compensation program was engaged, the motion compromised PTV coverage was recovered back to >95% for all cases and plans. All organs at risk (OAR) were spared with < 5% increase from original motion-free plans. Conclusion: Tomotherapy SBRT is less motion-impacted when 5cm dynamic jaw is used. Once the motion pattern is known, the jaw and MLC compensation program can largely minimize the compromised target coverage and OAR sparing.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957300},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: TomoTherapy treatment has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. This study is aimed to gain a realistic and quantitative understanding of motion impact on TomoTherapy SBRT treatment of lung and prostate cancer patients. Methods: A 4D dose engine utilizing GPUs and including motion during treatment was developed for the efficient simulation of TomoTherapy delivered dosimetry. Two clinical CyberKnife lung cases with respiratory motion tracking and two prostate cases with a slower non-periodical organ motion treated by LINAC plus Calypso tracking were used in the study. For each disease site, one selected case has an averagemore » motion (6mm); the other has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). SBRT of lung and prostate cases were re-planned on TomoTherapy with 12 Gyx4 fractions and 7Gyx5 fractions, respectively, all with 95% PTV coverage. Each case was planned with 4 jaw settings: 1) conventional 1cm static, 2) 2.5cm static, 3) 2.5cm dynamic, and 4) 5cm dynamic. The intrafractional rigid motion of the target was applied in the dose calculation of individual fractions of each plan and total dose was accumulated from multiple fractions. Results: For 1cm static jaw plans with motions applied, PTV coverage is related to motion type and amplitude. For SBRT patients with average motion (6mm), the PTV coverage remains > 95% for lung case and 74% for prostate case. For cases with large motion, PTV coverage drops to 61% for lung SBRT and 49% for prostate SBRT. Plans with other jaws improve uniformity of moving target, but still suffer from poor PTV coverage (< 70%). Conclusion: TomoTherapy lung SBRT is less motion-impacted when average amplitude of respiratory-induced intrafractional motion is present (6mm). When motion is large and/or non-periodic (prostate), all studied plans lead to significantly decreased target coverage in actual delivered dosimetry.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluatedmore » using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.« less
  • Purpose: To study the variability of patient-specific motion models derived from 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) images using different deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. Methods: Motion models are derived by 1) applying DIR between each 4DCT image and a reference image, resulting in a set of displacement vector fields (DVFs), and 2) performing principal component analysis (PCA) on the DVFs, resulting in a motion model (a set of eigenvectors capturing the variations in the DVFs). Three DIR algorithms were used: 1) Demons, 2) Horn-Schunck, and 3) iterative optical flow. The motion models derived weremore » compared using patient 4DCT scans. Results: Motion models were derived and the variations were evaluated according to three criteria: 1) the average root mean square (RMS) difference which measures the absolute difference between the components of the eigenvectors, 2) the dot product between the eigenvectors which measures the angular difference between the eigenvectors in space, and 3) the Euclidean Model Norm (EMN), which is calculated by summing the dot products of an eigenvector with the first three eigenvectors from the reference motion model in quadrature. EMN measures how well an eigenvector can be reconstructed using another motion model derived using a different DIR algorithm. Results showed that comparing to a reference motion model (derived using the Demons algorithm), the eigenvectors of the motion model derived using the iterative optical flow algorithm has smaller RMS, larger dot product, and larger EMN values than those of the motion model derived using Horn-Schunck algorithm. Conclusion: The study showed that motion models vary depending on which DIR algorithms were used to derive them. The choice of a DIR algorithm may affect the accuracy of the resulting model, and it is important to assess the suitability of the algorithm chosen for a particular application. This project was supported, in part, through a Master Research Agreement with Varian Medical Systems, Inc, Palo Alto, CA.« less
  • Purpose: Intra-fractional tumor motion due to respiration may potentially compromise dose delivery for SBRT of lung tumors. Even sufficient margins are used to ensure there is no geometric miss of target volume, there is potential dose blurring effect may present due to motion and could impact the tumor coverage if motions are larger. In this study we investigated dose blurring effect of open fields as well as Lung SBRT patients planned using 2 non-coplanar dynamic conformal arcs(NCDCA) and few conformal beams(CB) calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) based algorithm utilizing phantom with 2D-diode array(MapCheck) and ion-chamber. Methods: SBRT lung patients weremore » planned on Brainlab-iPlan system using 4D-CT scan and ITV were contoured on MIP image set and verified on all breathing phase image sets to account for breathing motion and then 5mm margin was applied to generate PTV. Plans were created using two NCDCA and 4-5 CB 6MV photon calculated using XVMC MC-algorithm. 3 SBRT patients plans were transferred to phantom with MapCheck and 0.125cc ion-chamber inserted in the middle of phantom to calculate dose. Also open field 3×3, 5×5 and 10×10 were calculated on this phantom. Phantom was placed on motion platform with varying motion from 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with duty cycle of 4 second. Measurements were carried out for open fields as well 3 patients plans at static and various degree of motions. MapCheck planar dose and ion-chamber reading were collected and compared with static measurements and computed values to evaluate the dosimetric effect on tumor coverage due to motion. Results: To eliminate complexity of patients plan 3 simple open fields were also measured to see the dose blurring effect with the introduction of motion. All motion measured ionchamber values were normalized to corresponding static value. For open fields 5×5 and 10×10 normalized central axis ion-chamber values were 1.00 for all motions but for 3×3 they were 1 up to 10mm motion and 0.97 and 0.87 for 20 and 30mm motion respectively. For SBRT plans central axis dose values were within 1% upto 10mm motions but decreased to average of 5% for 20mm and 8% for 30mm motion. Mapcheck comparison with static showed penumbra enlargement due to motion blurring at the edges of the field for 3×3,5×5,10×10 pass rates were 88% to 12%, 100% to 43% and 100% to 63% respectively as motion increased from 5 to 30mm. For SBRT plans MapCheck mean pass rate were decreased from 73.8% to 39.5% as motion increased from 5mm to 30mm. Conclusion: Dose blurring effect has been seen in open fields as well as SBRT lung plans using NCDCA with CB which worsens with increasing respiratory motion and decreasing field size(tumor size). To reduce this effect larger margins and appropriate motion reduction techniques should be utilized.« less
  • Although the prostate displacement of patients in the prone position is affected by respiration-induced motion, the effect of intrafractional prostate motion in the prone position during “simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy” (SIB-IMRT) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric effects of intrafractional motion on SIB-IMRT to a dominant intraprostatic lesion (IPL) using measured motion data of patients in a prone position, fixed with a thermoplastic shell. We obtained 2 orthogonal x-ray fluoroscopic images at the same moment every 0.2 seconds for 30 seconds before and after treatment, once weekly, from 7 patients with localized prostatemore » cancer with detectable prostatic calcification. Prostate displacements in the left-right (LR), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions were calculated using the prostatic calcification as a fiducial marker. We defined the displacement between pretreatment and posttreatment as baseline drift (BD). An SIB-IMRT plan was generated in which each IPL + 3 mm received a dose of 94.5 Gy, whereas the remainder of the prostate + 7 mm received a dose of 75.6 Gy in 9 fields. A simulated plan of dose blurring was generated by the convolution of isocenter-shifted plans using measured motion data in 30 seconds and motion in 30 seconds + distance between pretreatment and posttreatment position (BD) for each of the 7 patients. The motion in 30 seconds mainly reflected respiration-induced motion. The mean displacements of BD were 1.4 mm (− 3.1 to 8.2 mm), − 2.2 mm (− 9.1 to 1.5 mm), and − 0.3 mm (− 5.0 to 1.8 mm) in the AP, SI, and LR directions, respectively. The differences in the target coverage with V{sub 90%} of the IPL and V{sub 100%} of the prostate between the simulated plan and original plan were − 3.9% to − 0.3% and − 0.6% to 1.1% for respiration-induced motion and 3.1% to − 67.8% and 3.6% to − 13.3% for BD with respiration-induced motion, respectively. The large motion of BD resulted in an inadequate coverage by the prescribed dose of the SIB-IMRT to the IPL. A 7-mm margin is recommended when real-time tracking techniques are not applied. The effect of respiration-induced motion was small, so long as a 3-mm margin was added.« less