skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy

Abstract

Purpose: To validate 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose delivery by an Elekta Agility linear accelerator to a moving phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc user code which samples a new geometry for each incident particle and calculates the dose in a continuously moving anatomy. A Quasar respiratory motion phantom with a lung insert containing a 3 cm diameter tumor was used for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linac with the phantom in stationary and moving states. Dose to the center of tumor was measured using calibrated EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system. A VMAT plan covering the tumor was created on the static CT scan of the phantom using Monaco V.5.10.02. A validated BEAMnrc model of our Elekta Agility linac was used for Monte Carlo simulations on stationary and moving anatomies. To compare the planned and delivered doses, linac log files recorded during measurements were used for the simulations. For 4D simulations, deformation vectors that modeled the rigid translation of the lung insert were generated as input to the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc code as well as the phantom motion trace recorded with RADPOS during the measurements. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and film measurementsmore » were found to agree within 2mm/2% for 97.7% of points in the film in the static phantom and 95.5% in the moving phantom. Dose values based on film and RADPOS measurements are within 2% of each other and within 2σ of experimental uncertainties with respect to simulations. Conclusion: Our 4D Monte Carlo simulation using the defDOSXYZnrc code accurately calculates dose delivered to a moving anatomy. Future work will focus on more investigation of VMAT delivery on a moving phantom to improve the agreement between simulation and measurements, as well as establishing the accuracy of our method in a deforming anatomy. This work was supported by the Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology (OCAIRO), funded by the Ontario Research Fund Research Excellence program.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [1]
  1. Carleton University Ottawa, ON (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653865
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANATOMY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, and Heath, Emily. MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, & Heath, Emily. MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, and Heath, Emily. Wed . "MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
@article{osti_22653865,
title = {MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy},
author = {Gholampourkashi, S and Cygler, J E. and The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON and Belec, J and Vujicic, M and Heath, Emily},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To validate 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose delivery by an Elekta Agility linear accelerator to a moving phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc user code which samples a new geometry for each incident particle and calculates the dose in a continuously moving anatomy. A Quasar respiratory motion phantom with a lung insert containing a 3 cm diameter tumor was used for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linac with the phantom in stationary and moving states. Dose to the center of tumor was measured using calibrated EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system. A VMAT plan covering the tumor was created on the static CT scan of the phantom using Monaco V.5.10.02. A validated BEAMnrc model of our Elekta Agility linac was used for Monte Carlo simulations on stationary and moving anatomies. To compare the planned and delivered doses, linac log files recorded during measurements were used for the simulations. For 4D simulations, deformation vectors that modeled the rigid translation of the lung insert were generated as input to the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc code as well as the phantom motion trace recorded with RADPOS during the measurements. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and film measurements were found to agree within 2mm/2% for 97.7% of points in the film in the static phantom and 95.5% in the moving phantom. Dose values based on film and RADPOS measurements are within 2% of each other and within 2σ of experimental uncertainties with respect to simulations. Conclusion: Our 4D Monte Carlo simulation using the defDOSXYZnrc code accurately calculates dose delivered to a moving anatomy. Future work will focus on more investigation of VMAT delivery on a moving phantom to improve the agreement between simulation and measurements, as well as establishing the accuracy of our method in a deforming anatomy. This work was supported by the Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology (OCAIRO), funded by the Ontario Research Fund Research Excellence program.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957295},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Radioactive gold-palladium nanoparticles ({sup 103}Pd:Pd@Au NPs) are being developed for prostate cancer brachytherapy. Photons emitted by the radioisotope palladium (photon energy: 20.1 and 23.0 keV), interacting with gold-coating of NPs, lead to enhanced energy distribution in nucleus. Here, a simple cellular model was studied using detailed track-structure method. Methods: Geant4-DNA was used with auger electrons enabled. Biological cell was modeled as a sphere of radius r=5 µm that were immersed in a fluid containing large number of NPs at different concentrations (S=1, 2.15, 5.1, 17.2 mg-Au/g-H2O). Nucleus was modeled as a concentric sphere (r=3µm). Thickness of gold-coating on {supmore » 103}Pd core was 15nm, 20nm and 25nm, respectively. A scenario of NP diffusion was investigated, where S=5.1 mg-Au/g-H2O outside cell and S=1 mg-Au/g-H2O in cytoplasm. 10{sup 10} {sup 103}Pd decays were simulated for each combination of NP concentration and gold-coating. Results: A uniform increase in energy deposition (Edep) is observed in cell nucleus and the energy enhancement ratio (EER) is 1.16, 1.22 and 1.3 for 15nm, 20nm and 25nm of gold -coatings, respectively. Edep at the center of nucleus is increased by a factor of 1.47, 2.51 and 5.54 when the NP concentration in the cytoplasm increases from 1 mg-Au/g-H2O to 2.15, 5.10 and 17.2 mg-Au/g-H2O, respectively. When NPs diffuse into cytoplasm, the mean value of Edep in nucleus increases from 0.42 to 1.13 MeV per 10{sup 9} decays (GBq-Second) of {sup 103}Pd and the maximum value increases from 0.54 to 2.5 MeV per GBq-Second. Conclusion: These results suggest that {sup 103}Pd:Pd@Au NPs constitute a promising nanotherapeutic agent. Ongoing studies use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of prostate cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To simulate and measure magnetic-field-induced radiation dose effects in a mouse lung phantom. This data will be used to support pre-clinical experiments related to MRI-guided radiation therapy systems. Methods: A mouse lung phantom was constructed out of 1.5×1.5×2.0-cm{sup 3} lung-equivalent material (0.3 g/cm{sup 3}) surrounded by a 0.6-cm solid water shell. EBT3 film was inserted into the phantom and the phantom was placed between the poles of an H-frame electromagnet. The phantom was irradiated with a cobalt-60 beam (1.25 MeV) with the electromagnet set to various magnetic field strengths (0T, 0.35T, 0.9T, and 1.5T). These magnetic field strengths correspondmore » to the range of field strengths seen in MRI-guided radiation therapy systems. Dose increases at the solid-water-to-lung-interface and dose decreases at the lung-to-solid-water interface were compared with results of Monte Carlo simulations performed with MCNP6. Results: The measured dose to lung at the solid-water-to-lung interface increased by 0%, 16%, and 29% with application of the 0.35T, 0.9T, and 1.5T magnetic fields, respectively. The dose to lung at the lung-to-solid-water interface decreased by 4%, 18%, and 24% with application of the 0.35T, 0.9T, and 1.5T magnetic fields, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations showed dose increases of 0%, 16%, and 31% and dose decreases of 4%, 16%, and 25%. Conclusion: Only small dose perturbations were observed at the lung-solid-water interfaces for the 0.35T case, while more substantial dose perturbations were observed for the 0.9T and 1.5T cases. There is good agreement between the Monte Carlo calculations and the experimental measurements (within 2%). These measurements will aid in designing pre-clinical studies which investigate the potential biological effects of radiation therapy in the presence of a strong magnetic field. This work was partially funded by Elekta.« less
  • Purpose: To enable an existing web application for GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) 3D dosimetry quality assurance (QA) to compute “delivered dose” from linac logfile data. Methods: We added significant features to an IMRT/VMAT QA web application which is based on existing technologies (HTML5, Python, and Django). This tool interfaces with python, c-code libraries, and command line-based GPU applications to perform a MC-based IMRT/VMAT QA. The web app automates many complicated aspects of interfacing clinical DICOM and logfile data with cutting-edge GPU software to run a MC dose calculation. The resultant web app is powerful, easy to use, and is ablemore » to re-compute both plan dose (from DICOM data) and delivered dose (from logfile data). Both dynalog and trajectorylog file formats are supported. Users upload zipped DICOM RP, CT, and RD data and set the expected statistic uncertainty for the MC dose calculation. A 3D gamma index map, 3D dose distribution, gamma histogram, dosimetric statistics, and DVH curves are displayed to the user. Additional the user may upload the delivery logfile data from the linac to compute a 'delivered dose' calculation and corresponding gamma tests. A comprehensive PDF QA report summarizing the results can also be downloaded. Results: We successfully improved a web app for a GPU-based QA tool that consists of logfile parcing, fluence map generation, CT image processing, GPU based MC dose calculation, gamma index calculation, and DVH calculation. The result is an IMRT and VMAT QA tool that conducts an independent dose calculation for a given treatment plan and delivery log file. The system takes both DICOM data and logfile data to compute plan dose and delivered dose respectively. Conclusion: We sucessfully improved a GPU-based MC QA tool to allow for logfile dose calculation. The high efficiency and accessibility will greatly facilitate IMRT and VMAT QA.« less
  • Purpose: This proof-of-concept study is to develop a real-time Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment-dose reconstruction and monitoring system for radiotherapy, especially for the treatments with complicated delivery, to catch treatment delivery errors at the earliest possible opportunity and interrupt the treatment only when an unacceptable dosimetric deviation from our expectation occurs. Methods: First an offline scheme is launched to pre-calculate the expected dose from the treatment plan, used as ground truth for real-time monitoring later. Then an online scheme with three concurrent threads is launched while treatment delivering, to reconstruct and monitor the patient dose in a temporally resolved fashionmore » in real-time. Thread T1 acquires machine status every 20 ms to calculate and accumulate fluence map (FM). Once our accumulation threshold is reached, T1 transfers the FM to T2 for dose reconstruction ad starts to accumulate a new FM. A GPU-based MC dose calculation is performed on T2 when MC dose engine is ready and a new FM is available. The reconstructed instantaneous dose is directed to T3 for dose accumulation and real-time visualization. Multiple dose metrics (e.g. maximum and mean dose for targets and organs) are calculated from the current accumulated dose and compared with the pre-calculated expected values. Once the discrepancies go beyond our tolerance, an error message will be send to interrupt the treatment delivery. Results: A VMAT Head-and-neck patient case was used to test the performance of our system. Real-time machine status acquisition was simulated here. The differences between the actual dose metrics and the expected ones were 0.06%–0.36%, indicating an accurate delivery. ∼10Hz frequency of dose reconstruction and monitoring was achieved, with 287.94s online computation time compared to 287.84s treatment delivery time. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated the feasibility of computing a dose distribution in a temporally resolved fashion in real-time and quantitatively and dosimetrically monitoring the treatment delivery.« less
  • Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dosemore » distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.« less