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Title: MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy

Abstract

Purpose: To validate 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose delivery by an Elekta Agility linear accelerator to a moving phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc user code which samples a new geometry for each incident particle and calculates the dose in a continuously moving anatomy. A Quasar respiratory motion phantom with a lung insert containing a 3 cm diameter tumor was used for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linac with the phantom in stationary and moving states. Dose to the center of tumor was measured using calibrated EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system. A VMAT plan covering the tumor was created on the static CT scan of the phantom using Monaco V.5.10.02. A validated BEAMnrc model of our Elekta Agility linac was used for Monte Carlo simulations on stationary and moving anatomies. To compare the planned and delivered doses, linac log files recorded during measurements were used for the simulations. For 4D simulations, deformation vectors that modeled the rigid translation of the lung insert were generated as input to the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc code as well as the phantom motion trace recorded with RADPOS during the measurements. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and film measurementsmore » were found to agree within 2mm/2% for 97.7% of points in the film in the static phantom and 95.5% in the moving phantom. Dose values based on film and RADPOS measurements are within 2% of each other and within 2σ of experimental uncertainties with respect to simulations. Conclusion: Our 4D Monte Carlo simulation using the defDOSXYZnrc code accurately calculates dose delivered to a moving anatomy. Future work will focus on more investigation of VMAT delivery on a moving phantom to improve the agreement between simulation and measurements, as well as establishing the accuracy of our method in a deforming anatomy. This work was supported by the Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology (OCAIRO), funded by the Ontario Research Fund Research Excellence program.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [1]
  1. Carleton University Ottawa, ON (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22653865
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANATOMY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, and Heath, Emily. MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, & Heath, Emily. MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
Gholampourkashi, S, Cygler, J E., The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON, Belec, J, Vujicic, M, and Heath, Emily. 2016. "MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957295.
@article{osti_22653865,
title = {MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy},
author = {Gholampourkashi, S and Cygler, J E. and The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON and Belec, J and Vujicic, M and Heath, Emily},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To validate 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose delivery by an Elekta Agility linear accelerator to a moving phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc user code which samples a new geometry for each incident particle and calculates the dose in a continuously moving anatomy. A Quasar respiratory motion phantom with a lung insert containing a 3 cm diameter tumor was used for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linac with the phantom in stationary and moving states. Dose to the center of tumor was measured using calibrated EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system. A VMAT plan covering the tumor was created on the static CT scan of the phantom using Monaco V.5.10.02. A validated BEAMnrc model of our Elekta Agility linac was used for Monte Carlo simulations on stationary and moving anatomies. To compare the planned and delivered doses, linac log files recorded during measurements were used for the simulations. For 4D simulations, deformation vectors that modeled the rigid translation of the lung insert were generated as input to the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc code as well as the phantom motion trace recorded with RADPOS during the measurements. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and film measurements were found to agree within 2mm/2% for 97.7% of points in the film in the static phantom and 95.5% in the moving phantom. Dose values based on film and RADPOS measurements are within 2% of each other and within 2σ of experimental uncertainties with respect to simulations. Conclusion: Our 4D Monte Carlo simulation using the defDOSXYZnrc code accurately calculates dose delivered to a moving anatomy. Future work will focus on more investigation of VMAT delivery on a moving phantom to improve the agreement between simulation and measurements, as well as establishing the accuracy of our method in a deforming anatomy. This work was supported by the Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology (OCAIRO), funded by the Ontario Research Fund Research Excellence program.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957295},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To enable an existing web application for GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) 3D dosimetry quality assurance (QA) to compute “delivered dose” from linac logfile data. Methods: We added significant features to an IMRT/VMAT QA web application which is based on existing technologies (HTML5, Python, and Django). This tool interfaces with python, c-code libraries, and command line-based GPU applications to perform a MC-based IMRT/VMAT QA. The web app automates many complicated aspects of interfacing clinical DICOM and logfile data with cutting-edge GPU software to run a MC dose calculation. The resultant web app is powerful, easy to use, and is ablemore » to re-compute both plan dose (from DICOM data) and delivered dose (from logfile data). Both dynalog and trajectorylog file formats are supported. Users upload zipped DICOM RP, CT, and RD data and set the expected statistic uncertainty for the MC dose calculation. A 3D gamma index map, 3D dose distribution, gamma histogram, dosimetric statistics, and DVH curves are displayed to the user. Additional the user may upload the delivery logfile data from the linac to compute a 'delivered dose' calculation and corresponding gamma tests. A comprehensive PDF QA report summarizing the results can also be downloaded. Results: We successfully improved a web app for a GPU-based QA tool that consists of logfile parcing, fluence map generation, CT image processing, GPU based MC dose calculation, gamma index calculation, and DVH calculation. The result is an IMRT and VMAT QA tool that conducts an independent dose calculation for a given treatment plan and delivery log file. The system takes both DICOM data and logfile data to compute plan dose and delivered dose respectively. Conclusion: We sucessfully improved a GPU-based MC QA tool to allow for logfile dose calculation. The high efficiency and accessibility will greatly facilitate IMRT and VMAT QA.« less
  • Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dosemore » distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.« less
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  • In this work we present a method of calculating dose in deforming anatomy where the position and shape of each dose voxel is tracked as the anatomy changes. The EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo code was modified to calculate dose in voxels that are deformed according to deformation vectors obtained from a nonlinear image registration algorithm. The defDOSXYZ code was validated by consistency checks and by comparing calculations against DOSXYZnrc calculations. Calculations in deforming phantoms were compared with a dose remapping method employing trilinear interpolation. Dose calculations with the deforming voxels agree with DOSXYZnrc calculations within 1%. In simple deforming rectangular phantomsmore » the trilinear dose remapping method was found to underestimate the dose by up to 29% for a 1.0 cm voxel size within the field, with larger discrepancies in regions of steep dose gradients. The agreement between the two calculation methods improved with smaller voxel size and deformation magnitude. A comparison of dose remapping from Inhale to Exhale in an anatomical breathing phantom demonstrated that dose deformations are underestimated by up to 16% in the penumbra and 8% near the surface with trilinear interpolation.« less
  • In a periodic pulsed reactor, the reactor state varies periodically from slightly subcritical to slightly prompt supercritical for producing periodic power pulses. Such periodic state change is accomplished by a periodic movement of specific reactor parts, such as control rods or reflector sections. The analysis of such reactor is difficult to perform with the current reactor physics computer programs. Based on past experience, the utilization of the point kinetics approximations gives considerable errors in predicting the magnitude and the shape of the power pulse if the reactor has significantly different neutron life times in different zones. To accurately simulate themore » dynamics of this type of reactor, a Monte Carlo procedure using the transfer function TRCL/TR of the MCNP/MCNPX computer programs is utilized to model the movable reactor parts. In this paper, two algorithms simulating the geometry part movements during a neutron history tracking have been developed. Several test cases have been developed to evaluate these procedures. The numerical test cases have shown that the developed algorithms can be utilized to simulate the reactor dynamics with movable geometry parts.« less