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Title: Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment

Abstract

Purpose: To develop and evaluate a super-resolution approach to reconstruct time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (TR-4DMRI) with a high spatiotemporal resolution for multi-breathing cycle motion assessment. Methods and Materials: A super-resolution approach was developed to combine fast 3-dimensional (3D) cine MRI with low resolution during free breathing (FB) and high-resolution 3D static MRI during breath hold (BH) using deformable image registration. A T1-weighted, turbo field echo sequence, coronal 3D cine acquisition, partial Fourier approximation, and SENSitivity Encoding parallel acceleration were used. The same MRI pulse sequence, field of view, and acceleration techniques were applied in both FB and BH acquisitions; the intensity-based Demons deformable image registration method was used. Under an institutional review board–approved protocol, 7 volunteers were studied with 3D cine FB scan (voxel size: 5 × 5 × 5 mm{sup 3}) at 2 Hz for 40 seconds and a 3D static BH scan (2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}). To examine the image fidelity of 3D cine and super-resolution TR-4DMRI, a mobile gel phantom with multi-internal targets was scanned at 3 speeds and compared with the 3D static image. Image similarity among 3D cine, 4DMRI, and 3D static was evaluated visually using difference image and quantitatively using voxel intensity correlation and Dice index (phantom only). Multi-breathing-cycle waveforms were extractedmore » and compared in both phantom and volunteer images using the 3D cine as the references. Results: Mild imaging artifacts were found in the 3D cine and TR-4DMRI of the mobile gel phantom with a Dice index of >0.95. Among 7 volunteers, the super-resolution TR-4DMRI yielded high voxel-intensity correlation (0.92 ± 0.05) and low voxel-intensity difference (<0.05). The detected motion differences between TR-4DMRI and 3D cine were −0.2 ± 0.5 mm (phantom) and −0.2 ± 1.9 mm (diaphragms). Conclusion: Super-resolution TR-4DMRI has been reconstructed with adequate temporal (2 Hz) and spatial (2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}) resolutions. Further TR-4DMRI characterization and improvement are necessary before clinical applications. Multi-breathing cycles can be examined, providing patient-specific breathing irregularities and motion statistics for future 4D radiation therapy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)
  2. Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York (United States)
  3. Philips Healthcare, MR Therapy Cleveland, Ohio (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649944
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 98; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BREATH; IMAGES; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY; RESPIRATION; TIME RESOLUTION; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org, Wei, Jie, Kadbi, Mo, Moody, Jason, Sun, August, Zhang, Shirong, Markova, Svetlana, Zakian, Kristen, Hunt, Margie, and Deasy, Joseph O. Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.02.016.
Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org, Wei, Jie, Kadbi, Mo, Moody, Jason, Sun, August, Zhang, Shirong, Markova, Svetlana, Zakian, Kristen, Hunt, Margie, & Deasy, Joseph O. Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.02.016.
Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org, Wei, Jie, Kadbi, Mo, Moody, Jason, Sun, August, Zhang, Shirong, Markova, Svetlana, Zakian, Kristen, Hunt, Margie, and Deasy, Joseph O. Thu . "Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.02.016.
@article{osti_22649944,
title = {Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment},
author = {Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org and Wei, Jie and Kadbi, Mo and Moody, Jason and Sun, August and Zhang, Shirong and Markova, Svetlana and Zakian, Kristen and Hunt, Margie and Deasy, Joseph O.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop and evaluate a super-resolution approach to reconstruct time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (TR-4DMRI) with a high spatiotemporal resolution for multi-breathing cycle motion assessment. Methods and Materials: A super-resolution approach was developed to combine fast 3-dimensional (3D) cine MRI with low resolution during free breathing (FB) and high-resolution 3D static MRI during breath hold (BH) using deformable image registration. A T1-weighted, turbo field echo sequence, coronal 3D cine acquisition, partial Fourier approximation, and SENSitivity Encoding parallel acceleration were used. The same MRI pulse sequence, field of view, and acceleration techniques were applied in both FB and BH acquisitions; the intensity-based Demons deformable image registration method was used. Under an institutional review board–approved protocol, 7 volunteers were studied with 3D cine FB scan (voxel size: 5 × 5 × 5 mm{sup 3}) at 2 Hz for 40 seconds and a 3D static BH scan (2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}). To examine the image fidelity of 3D cine and super-resolution TR-4DMRI, a mobile gel phantom with multi-internal targets was scanned at 3 speeds and compared with the 3D static image. Image similarity among 3D cine, 4DMRI, and 3D static was evaluated visually using difference image and quantitatively using voxel intensity correlation and Dice index (phantom only). Multi-breathing-cycle waveforms were extracted and compared in both phantom and volunteer images using the 3D cine as the references. Results: Mild imaging artifacts were found in the 3D cine and TR-4DMRI of the mobile gel phantom with a Dice index of >0.95. Among 7 volunteers, the super-resolution TR-4DMRI yielded high voxel-intensity correlation (0.92 ± 0.05) and low voxel-intensity difference (<0.05). The detected motion differences between TR-4DMRI and 3D cine were −0.2 ± 0.5 mm (phantom) and −0.2 ± 1.9 mm (diaphragms). Conclusion: Super-resolution TR-4DMRI has been reconstructed with adequate temporal (2 Hz) and spatial (2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}) resolutions. Further TR-4DMRI characterization and improvement are necessary before clinical applications. Multi-breathing cycles can be examined, providing patient-specific breathing irregularities and motion statistics for future 4D radiation therapy.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.02.016},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 98,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Purpose: To develop a novel super-resolution time-resolved 4DMRI technique to evaluate multi-breath, irregular and complex organ motion without respiratory surrogate for radiotherapy planning. Methods: The super-resolution time-resolved (TR) 4DMRI approach combines a series of low-resolution 3D cine MRI images acquired during free breathing (FB) with a high-resolution breath-hold (BH) 3DMRI via deformable image registration (DIR). Five volunteers participated in the study under an IRB-approved protocol. The 3D cine images with voxel size of 5×5×5 mm{sup 3} at two volumes per second (2Hz) were acquired coronally using a T1 fast field echo sequence, half-scan (0.8) acceleration, and SENSE (3) parallel imaging.more » Phase-encoding was set in the lateral direction to minimize motion artifacts. The BH image with voxel size of 2×2×2 mm{sup 3} was acquired using the same sequence within 10 seconds. A demons-based DIR program was employed to produce super-resolution 2Hz 4DMRI. Registration quality was visually assessed using difference images between TR 4DMRI and 3D cine and quantitatively assessed using average voxel correlation. The fidelity of the 3D cine images was assessed using a gel phantom and a 1D motion platform by comparing mobile and static images. Results: Owing to voxel intensity similarity using the same MRI scanning sequence, accurate DIR between FB and BH images is achieved. The voxel correlations between 3D cine and TR 4DMRI are greater than 0.92 in all cases and the difference images illustrate minimal residual error with little systematic patterns. The 3D cine images of the mobile gel phantom preserve object geometry with minimal scanning artifacts. Conclusion: The super-resolution time-resolved 4DMRI technique has been achieved via DIR, providing a potential solution for multi-breath motion assessment. Accurate DIR mapping has been achieved to map high-resolution BH images to low-resolution FB images, producing 2Hz volumetric high-resolution 4DMRI. Further validation and improvement are still required prior to clinical applications. This study is in part supported by the NIH (U54CA137788/U54CA132378).« less
  • Purpose: To consider nonuniform tumor motion within the internal target volume (ITV) by defining time-adjusted ITV (TTV), a volume designed to include heterogeneity of tumor existence on the basis of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Methods and Materials: We evaluated 30 lung cancer patients. Breath-hold CT (BH-CT) and free-breathing 4D-CT scans were acquired for each patient. The tumors were manually delineated using a lung CT window setting (window, 1600 HU; level, −300 HU). Tumor in BH-CT images was defined as gross tumor volume (GTV), and the sum of tumors in 4D-CT images was defined as ITV-4D. The TTV images were generatedmore » from the 4D-CT datasets, and the tumor existence probability within ITV-4D was calculated. We calculated the TTV{sub 80} value, which is the percentage of the volume with a tumor existence probability that exceeded 80% on ITV-4D. Several factors that affected the TTV{sub 80} value, such as the ITV-4D/GTV ratio or tumor centroid deviation, were evaluated. Results: Time-adjusted ITV images were acquired for all patients, and tumor respiratory motion heterogeneity was visualized. The median (range) ITV-4D/GTV ratio and median tumor centroid deviation were 1.6 (1.0-4.1) and 6.3 mm (0.1-30.3 mm), respectively. The median TTV{sub 80} value was 43.3% (2.9-98.7%). Strong correlations were observed between the TTV{sub 80} value and the ITV-4D/GTV ratio (R=−0.71) and tumor centroid deviation (R=−0.72). The TTV images revealed the tumor motion pattern features within ITV. Conclusions: The TTV images reflected nonuniform tumor motion, and they revealed the tumor motion pattern features, suggesting that the TTV concept may facilitate various aspects of radiation therapy planning of lung cancer while incorporating respiratory motion in the future.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the extent of tumor motion between 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cine-MRI in patients with hepatic tumors treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with liver tumors who underwent 4DCT and 2-dimensional biplanar cine-MRI scans during simulation were retrospectively reviewed to determine the extent of target motion in the superior–inferior, anterior–posterior, and lateral directions. Cine-MRI was performed over 5 minutes. Tumor motion from MRI was determined by tracking the centroid of the gross tumor volume using deformable image registration. Motion estimates from 4DCT were performed by evaluation of the fiducial, residual contrast (or liver contour) positions in eachmore » CT phase. Results: Sixteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=11), cholangiocarcinoma (n=3), and liver metastasis (n=2) were reviewed. Cine-MRI motion was larger than 4DCT for the superior–inferior direction in 50% of patients by a median of 3.0 mm (range, 1.5-7 mm), the anterior–posterior direction in 44% of patients by a median of 2.5 mm (range, 1-5.5 mm), and laterally in 63% of patients by a median of 1.1 mm (range, 0.2-4.5 mm). Conclusions: Cine-MRI frequently detects larger differences in hepatic intrafraction tumor motion when compared with 4DCT most notably in the superior–inferior direction, and may be useful when assessing the need for or treating without respiratory management, particularly in patients with unreliable 4DCT imaging. Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a retrospective 4D-MRI technique (respiratory phase-resolved 3D-MRI) for providing an accurate assessment of tumor motion secondary to respiration. Methods: A 3D projection reconstruction (PR) sequence with self-gating (SG) was developed for 4D-MRI on a 3.0T MRI scanner. The respiration-induced shift of the imaging target was recorded by SG signals acquired in the superior-inferior direction every 15 radial projections (i.e. temporal resolution 98 ms). A total of 73000 radial projections obtained in 8-min were retrospectively sorted into 10 time-domain evenly distributed respiratory phases based on the SG information. Ten 3D image sets were then reconstructed offline. The techniquemore » was validated on a motion phantom (gadolinium-doped water-filled box, frequency of 10 and 18 cycles/min) and humans (4 healthy and 2 patients with liver tumors). Imaging protocol included 8-min 4D-MRI followed by 1-min 2D-realtime (498 ms/frame) MRI as a reference. Results: The multiphase 3D image sets with isotropic high spatial resolution (1.56 mm) permits flexible image reformatting and visualization. No intra-phase motion-induced blurring was observed. Comparing to 2D-realtime, 4D-MRI yielded similar motion range (phantom: 10.46 vs. 11.27 mm; healthy subject: 25.20 vs. 17.9 mm; patient: 11.38 vs. 9.30 mm), reasonable displacement difference averaged over the 10 phases (0.74mm; 3.63mm; 1.65mm), and excellent cross-correlation (0.98; 0.96; 0.94) between the two displacement series. Conclusion: Our preliminary study has demonstrated that the 4D-MRI technique can provide high-quality respiratory phase-resolved 3D images that feature: a) isotropic high spatial resolution, b) a fixed scan time of 8 minutes, c) an accurate estimate of average motion pattern, and d) minimal intra-phase motion artifact. This approach has the potential to become a viable alternative solution to assess the impact of breathing on tumor motion and determine appropriate treatment margins. Comparison with 4D-CT in a clinical setting is warranted to assess the value of 4D-MRI in radiotherapy planning. This work supported in part by grant 1R03CA173273-01.« less
  • A streaked multiple pinhole camera technique, first used by P. Choi and co-workers (C. Deeney and P. Choi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 60}, 3558 (1989); P. Choi and R. Aliaga, {ital ibid}. {bold 61}, 2747 (1990)) to record time- and two-dimensional space-resolved soft x-ray images of plasma pinches, has been implemented on laser plasmas at NOVA. The instrument is particularly useful for time-resolved imaging of small sources ({lt}150 {mu}m in size) such as implosions for which the necessary alignment accuracy is relaxed from {le}10 {mu}m for a single pinhole, to 200 {mu}m for a nine-pinhole column. Results at 20 {mu}m,more » 30-ps resolution are presented for {gt}2.5-keV imaging, complementing the existing 1--3-keV streaked x-ray microscope capabilities at NOVA.« less